Clinical Examination And Signs Of Common Resp Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Examination And Signs Of Common Resp Diseases Deck (35)
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1

What does SQITARS stand for?

Site
Quality
Intensity
Timing
Aggravating factors
Relieving factors
Secondary symptoms

2

What are the 7 principle symptoms for respiratory conditions?

Chest pain
Breathlessness
Cough
Sputum
Haemoptysis
Wheeze
Hoarseness

3

Describe pleuritic chest pain

Can be anywhere in the chest
Sharp
Made worse by deep inspiration and coughing

4

Give some causes of pleuritic chest pain

Lobar pneumonia
PE
Infarction
Pneumothorax

5

Define dyspnoea

An awareness that it is taking an abnormal amount of effort to breathe

6

Give some common causes of breathlessness

Unfit
Infection
Pleural effusion
COPD
Anaemia

7

How do we assess how bad dyspnoea is?

MRC dyspnoea score
1 - 5

8

Give some characteristics that can describe coughing

Throat clearing
Barking
With blood
Painful
Productive

9

What is the likely cause of a cough lasting < 3 weeks?

Upper/lower resp tract infection

10

What are some causes of a cough lasting > 3 weeks?

COPD
Asthma
Reflux
Lung carcinoma
Medication (ACEi)

11

Give some causes of haemoptysis

Bronchitis
Bronchial carcinoma
Pneumonia
Pulmonary infarction
TB

12

Give some causes of a wheeze

Asthma
COPD
Foreign body

13

What gives hoarseness of voice?

Transient inflammation of vocal cords
Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (LHS)

14

What drugs can give a wheeze as a side effect?

Beta blockers

15

When we stand back and observe the patient in resp exam, what are we looking at?

Comfort
Breathing - fast, laboured, accessory muscle use
Medication/machines/oxygen around

16

How can lung cancer give wasting of hands?

Apical lung tumours
T1 nerve root compression
Atrophy of muscles of hands

17

What is a pigeon chest?

Prominent sternum/costal cartilage

18

What is a funnel chest?

Depression of lower end of sternum

19

What happens to vocal resonance with consolidation?

Increases
We can hear 99 more clearly through the stethoscope

20

What investigations might you state for completion at the end of a resp exam?

Peak flow
Sputum exam and culture
Temperature

21

What do we call the normal breathing sounds?

Vesicular

22

Why might we get reduced chest movements on one side?

Pain
Lung collapse
Fluid
Obstruction

23

Why might we get reduced chest movement on both sides of lungs?

Stiff lungs (ILD)
Hyperinflated (COPD, severe asthma)

24

Why do you get reduced/absent breath sounds?

Air or fluid between lung and chest wall

25

When is vocal resonance increased?

When bronchial breathing is present

26

What is tactile vocal fremitus?

Palpable vocal resonance

27

Describe how lobar pneumonia would appear in the clinical examination

Central trachea
Reduced chest movements on affected side
Dull percussion of affected area
Bronchial breath sounds
Increased vocal resonance
Crackles
+/- pleural ribs if spread to pleura

28

Describe how pleural effusion would appear in the resp clinical exam

Mediastinum shifted away
Reduced chest movements on affected side
Stony dullness over area
Vesicular breast sounds (reduced intensity on affected side)
Reduced vocal resonance

29

Describe how pneumothorax would appear in the resp clinical exam

Mediastinum shifted away
Reduced chest movements on affected side
Hyperresonant over affected area
Reduced/absent breath sounds on affected side
Reduced vocal resonance

30

Describe how lobar/lung collapse would appear in the resp clinical exam

Mediastinum pulled to affected side
Decreased chest movements on affected side
Percussion - normal or dull
Breath sounds decreased or absent where affected
Reduced vocal resonance