Lung Volume Measurement and Indications of Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lung Volume Measurement and Indications of Pathology Deck (23):
1

What is the device used to measure lung volume?

Spirometer

2

What are the 4 volumes that can be measured in the lungs?

1. Tidal Volume
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
3. Expiratory Volume
4. Residual Volume

3

What is tidal volume?

Normal volume of air inhaled and exhaled
-500ml

4

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

Extra volume inhaled on top of the normal tidal volume

5

What is the expiratory volume?

Extra volume you can get out after you normally exhale on top of the tidal volume

6

What is residual volume?

Left over volume that never leaves the lung
hard to measure

7

What is the total lung capacity?

How much volume the lungs can hold in total
-including all 4 volumes

8

What is the vital capacity?

3/4 volumes without taking residual volume into account

9

What is the Forced Vital Capacity?

Breath in and out as fast as you can, forcing it out
-volumes with vital capacity should be the same

10

What is the Forced Expiratory Volume/1sec?

How much air they expired in one second when they forced the air out as fast as possible

11

What is a normal FEV1/FVC ratio?

80% of air coming out in one second is normal

12

What makes an obstructive respiratory problem show up on a graph?

FEV1 is shortened
-takes them a long time to exhale all the air

13

What are characteristics of obstructive diseases?

Airway Inflammation
Airway Hyperresonpnsivness
Outflow Problems
-narrows airway

14

what are 3 obstructives diseases?

Asthma
Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema

15

Characteristics of Asthma?

Spasms in airways (smooth muscle constricting) triggered by pollution, exercise, allergies
-contract when they aren't supposed to

16

Characteristics of Chronic Bronchitis?

Excessive mucus and inflammation in the airways triggered by smoking

17

Characteristics of Emphysema

Walls between alveoli break down creating large air sacs triggered by smoking

18

Why is wall breakdown in the alveoli from emphysema bad?

Elastin breakdown results in losing the collapsing force that helps expel air
-lungs are too compliance but they can't exhale
-decreases area for gas exchange

19

What makes a restrictive respiratory problem show up on a graph?

FVC is lower
-can blow out most of the air in the first second but there wasn't much air in the lung to begin with

20

What are characteristics of restrictive diseases?

Difficulty filling the lungs

Less air to exhale

21

What is Pulmonary Fibrosis?

When scar tissue forms on the alveoli and other lung tissue (pollution, asbestos, coal) causing the lungs to become less compliant

22

Why does scar tissue impact compliance?

Scar tissue is not elastic, being attached to other eleastic tissue restricts movement. Decreasing compliance

23

How does Pulmonary Fibrosis affect gas exchange?

Scar tissue is a lot thicker than regular type 1 cells in the alveoli. Larger barrier that the O2 and CO2 molecules need to pass through, decreasing gas exchange