Flashcards in Sodium Handling - Kidneys Deck (15):
What is the main output of Na?
What are the 2 hormonal systems that regulate Na handling?
What is Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System?
Increases Na reabsorption through the production of the enzyme renin and 2 hormones (angiotensin II and aldosterone)
What is the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide?
Functions to decrease Na reabsorption
What is the connection between Na levels and BP?
If Na is too high, ECF volume increases, increasing BP.
Describe the RAAS pathway and how it works?
-Liver is making angiotensinogen all the time, floats around the blood
-Within the kidney, juxtamedullary cells make renin when there is low Na, and is put into the blood
-Renin cuts angiotensinogen --> angiotensin I which floats around the blood as a small protein
-ACE is in endothelial cells of capillaries and cleaves angiotensin I --> angiotensin II (smaller protein that is the actual hormone)
Name the following for Angiotensin II
Made: by ACE cleaving angiotensin I
Properties: peptide, extracellular receptor, released into the blood
Stimulus: Renin release
Action: Cause an increase in Na reabsorption in proximal tubule
What are the ways in which angiotensin II causes reabsorption of Na
-Increases activity of Na/H exchanger
-Increasing activity of Na/K ATPase
-Constricting afferent and efferent arterioles
--> GFR decreases
--> slowing the flow of the filtrate traveling through the tubule, giving Na a higher chance or reabsorption
Name the following for Aldosterone
Made: Adrenal gland
Properties: Steroid, intracellular receptors
Stimulus: Angiotensin II and K levels too high
Action: cause an increase in Na reabsorption collecting duct
How does aldosterone stimulate Na reabsorption in the collecting duct?
-Increasing number of Na and K channels in luminal membrane
-Increasing Na/K ATPase activity
-Increasing expression level of Na and Na/K ATPase
What is unique about the action of aldosterone?
There are fast and slow acting elements to increase Na reabsorption
What triggers/regulates the release of renin?
When Na levels are low in the blood
Name the following for Atrial Natiuretic Peptide
Made: By atrial cardiac cells
Properties: Peptide, extracellular receptors
Stimulus: High PB
Action: Inhibit Na reabsorption
How does ANP inhibit Na absorption?
-ANP inhibits aldosterone secretion by the adrenal glands
-ANP is also a vast dilator, causing dilation of afferent arterioles, causing an increase flow in the Bowmans capsule, causing Na to not have enough time in the tubule for reabsorption. therefore most of the Na goes right through and is excreted