Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (34):
What is the function fo the male reproductive system?
1. Produce Sperm
2. produce Hormones
Does having the reproductive system function in maintaining homeostasis?
No, people have their tubes tied (male and female) and females can undergo histerectomy
Where is the sperm and hormones produced?
In the testis, inside the scrotum on the outer part of the body
What is the optimal temperature to produce sperm?
2 degrees below body temperature
How doe the testis regulate body temp?
Cremaster muscles can elevate the position of the testes for temperature regulation
What are the seminiferous tubules?
Where sperm production begins
-sperm and fluid start to be produced here
What is the Epididymus?
Used for sperm storage and maturation
-gains its ability to swim here
What is the Vas deferens?
Muscular tube to allow for sperm and fluid to release
What is a myth in regards to sperm storage and is it true or not?
Sperm doesn't need to be released every couple days, body will degrade and absorb the cells of sperm that are not released
What is spermatocytes?
Developing sperm cells
-develop between 2 sertoli cells
-makes sure nutrients, fluid are provided and degrades poorly formed cells
What are Sertoli cells?
Support and regulate spermatogenesis
-allow for the sperm to move up towards the lumen after each cell division to become more mature
What are Lydig cells?
Are outside (basolateral side) and produce testosterone
When is spermatogenesis initiated?
What is the process of spermatogenesis?
1. Spermatogonia- starting point at the basolateral membrane
2. Primary spermatocytes- first division
3. Secondary spermatocyte- second division into 2 cells
4. Spermatids- 4 genetically different cells
5. Spermatazoa- closes to the luminal memebrane and fully developed/most mature (looks like sperm)
What options do cells at the spermatogonia level can go through?
the Stem cell can either go through mitosis and create another cell in which it could go on and be the starting point for other sperm cells
Can move up and divide to create an identical cell and create a primary spermatocyte
Where does mitosis and meiosis happen in creating sperm?
mitosis from spermatogonia to primary spermatocyte
meiosis 1 from primary spermatocyte 1 to secondary spermatocyte
Meiosis 2 from secondary spermatocyte to spermatids
What are the 2 path in which testosterone can travel?
Either be released into the blood (endocrine)
Diffuse through the basolateral membrane to signal Sertoli cells (paracrine) to make sure sperm formation is done
Do sperm cells have receptors for testosterone?
No, only sertoli cells
What are the properties of testosterone?
Water status: Hydrophobic
Receptors: Inside cells
Transported: In blood with protein
What are androgens?
Male sex hormones
What separates testosterone from estrogen?
1 enzyme (aromatase) conversion from testosterone to estradiol
How are testosterone levels regulate?
Hypothalamic-ant4erior pituitary feedback pathway
Negative feedback with GnRH, gonadotropes (LH FSH), testosterone
What happens when testosterone levels are too high?
It shuts off GnRH and therefore LH and FSH
What are the roles of FSH and LS in the negative feedback?
LH: Stimulates leading cells to produce testosterone
FSH: Stimulates Sertoli cells to start+ regulate spermatogenesis
What are other functions of testosterone in males?
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Anabalic reactions - binding of androgen receptors inside target cells
What are examples of secondary sec characteristics?
-Are characteristics apart from the reproductive characteristics
-endocrine so circulates through the body to stimulate these areas
What happens when you take extra testosterone?
Body thinks it made too much and responds by shutting down the GnRH, LH, FSH.
Why is taking extra testosterone a bad thing?
Because testosterone stimulates the testies. Too much LH and FSH causes the growth of the testies and too little causes smaller testies which has longterm impacts on fertility
-Can also cause increase in red blood cells which makes your heart work harder and can cause heart attacks and stroke
What are the seminal vesicles?
2 glands behind the bladder are responsible for fluid production and adds the fluid to sperm being released
What us the Prostate?
Golf ball sized gland that is below the seminal vesicles and bladder. Adds fluid
-urethra and seminal vesicle joins here
What is the Bulbourethral gland?
Just Below the prostate and developed some fluid
What are/ is the amount of secretion breakdown of each gland?
Seminal vesicles: 60% volume of semen
-fructose, clotting protein (alkaline)
Prostate: 30% volume of semen
-cirtric acid and enzymes
Bulbouretheal: minor contribution to semen
What is BPH?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
-when you have an enlarged prostate
-very common as we age, 3/4 males over the age of 65 will develop this
-Since urethra runs through the prostate it is squished and you are unable to pee