Flashcards in Metabolism and Adaptations to Metabolism Deck (31):
What are the 4 sets of reactions of cellular respiration?
1. Glycolysis --> ATP
2. Pyruvic Acids--> AcetylCoA
3. AcetylCoA(Citric acid cycle)--> CO2, ATP, H+ and high energy e- carriers (NADH)
4. H+, high energy e- carriers--> electron transport chain--> ATP
Which sets of reaction are in the cytoplasm vs the mitochondria?
-Glycolysis to create pyruvic acid
-Pryuvic acid to AcetylCoA
-AcetylCoA (citric acid cycle)-->CO2, ATP, H+, high energy e- carriers
-H+, high energy e- carriers(electron transport system)--> ATP
Which is a more efficient source of producing ATP?
Fat produces more ATP than glucose
What are the 4 fates of glucose after the liver has converted all monosaccharides into glucose?
1. ATP production- glucose is oxidized to produce ATP (liver takes glucose and m makes ATP)
2. Amino acid synthesis- glucose can be converted into some amino acids if needed (protein anabolism)
3. Glycogen Synthesis- storage of glucose
4. Triglyceride synthesis- when glucose is in excess (lipogenesis)
Describe glucose uptake
Cells take glucose from the blood to use in ATP production. Glucose is taken in via uniporter and phospherilated ignorer to remain in the cell
-glucose goes from a high to low concentration areas
Taking glucose from the blood, phosphorylating it, and convening glucose chains into glycogen stores
Which cells are better are glycogenesis?
Skeletal muscle and liver cells
Which area in the body can not store glucose?
Brain, even though it uses glucose to function it relies on the body to produce glucose for it
When glycogen is converted back to phosphorylated glucose. Then either skeletal muscle cells can keep the phosphorylated glucose to use in muscles. Or phosphorylated glucose is sent to the liver and has the enzyme to breakdown the P bonds and just leave glucose for it to enter into the blood and be taken up be cells that need glucose
Why does the skeletal muscle keep the glucose for itself?
It doesn't have the enzyme in order to break the P bonds
formation of glucose molecules from non-carb sources (Amino acids, lactic acid, glycerol)
How does lactic acid enter the cellular respiration cycle to produce glucose?
Lactic acid is produced when muscle cells are deprived of O2. It can travel to the liver and it converted by an enzyme into pyruvic acid
How do amino acids enter the cellular respiration cycle to produce glucose?
Certain amino acids are converted into pyruvic acid
How does glycerol enter the cellular respiration cycle to produce glucose?
Backbone of triglyceride goes into the liver and is converted into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (after pyruvic acids and before glucose 6-phosphate)
What are the fates of lipids?
1. Stored in adipose tissue as fat deposits (triglycerides)
2. Oxidized to produce ATP
3. Formation of structural m molecules- phospholipids of cell membranes and myelin sheaths in neurons
What makes up 89% of our energy source for our bodies?
triglycerides that are stored in adipose tissue
Where is 50% of stored triglycerides found?
In our sub-cutaneous skin
The breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
-Glycerol enters to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphoate stage and can either make glucose or go through citric acid cycle depending on the cell
-Fatty acids will enter are the start of the citric acid cycle and AcetylCoA
Forming triglycerides form non-lipid sources such as glucose and amino acids.
-Amino acids enter as AcetylCoA and through many combinations with other AcetylCoA's they for fatty acids
-Glucose can continue onto glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which can then form glycerol aka the backbone
What is a ketone body?
When 2 AcetlyCoA molecules come together
Where are ketones made?
Hepatocytes of the liver
How are ketone bodies leave the cell?
Diffusion which the AcetylCoA can not
How do ketones get to other cells?
They are released into the blood where other cells can pick them up to use as an energy source
How do ketones enter into the Krebs cycle?
They are converted back into 2 AcetylCoA molecules
Which organs in the body prefer ketones as an energy source?
Heart and the kidney outer layer prefer ketones to produce ATP
In what state do you have to be in in order to produce ketones?
Consuming a high fat diet or starvation which produces excessive ketone bodies (which are acidic)
What kind of people can benefit from a ketone based diet?
People with seizures and neurological disorders
What is protein anabolism?
After amino acids are absorbed, they are put back together as proteins
What are the 4 main types of proteins?
3. Structural components
What is protein catabolism?
Cells are able to recycle proteins. Hepatocytes can convert some amino acids to fatty aids, ketone bodies or glucose.