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Flashcards in maggie praxis 1 Deck (51):
1

Sternocledomastoid

Muscle of respiration, elevates the sternum

2

Muscle which opposes velopharyngeal closure

palatoglossus

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Major acoustic characteristic of voiceless fricatives

aperiodicity

4

Front vowels characterized by

High frequency second formant (F2)

5

Technique which results in temporary facilitation of swallow reflex

Thermal stimulation??

6

Stroboscopy

effective instrument for viewing the vocal folds (VFs)

7

Bulbar palsy characterized by

Flaccid paralysis

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Independent variable

manipulated to determine its effect on the dependent variable

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Within-subjects design

dependent variables are measured repeatedly in the same subjects under different tasks/conditions

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between-subjects design

each participant participates in one and only one group. The results from each group are then compared to each other to examine differences, and thus, effect of the IV. For example, in a study examining the effect of Bayer aspirin vs Tylenol on headaches, we can have 2 groups (those getting Bayer and those getting Tylenol). Participants get either Bayer OR Tylenol, but they do NOT get both

11

Multiple baseline design

The multiple baseline design allows for evaluation across clients, situations, or problems. It is a true experimental design in that it allows for causal inference. It is extremely useful for evaluating situations where an intervention would be likely to bring about enduring changes in the dependent variable

12

Flaccid paralysis of soft palate remediated by

palatal lift appliance to compensation for intact but non-functioning palate

13

1st choice of tx for submucous cleft

surgery

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1st choce for congenitally short palate

surgery

15

Best way to assess swallow (prior to providing speech tx)

modified barium swallow

16

ellipses

omission of words or other linguistic units b/c they're unnecessary or contextually inferred. An ellipsis is a set of three periods ( . . . ) indicating an omission.

17

deixis

A word (such as this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time, place, or situation in which the speaker is speaking. Also known as deixis.

18

Leading causes of aphasia

CVA, TBI, seizures, tumors, neurodegenerative disorders (dementia & primary progressive aphasia)

19

Fluent aphasias

Wernicke's, conduction, transcortical sensory, anomic

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Anomic aphasia (location)

tempo-parietal, angular gyrus; second temporal gyrus

21

Anomic aphasia (characteristics)

fluent aphasia, good comprehension & repeition. Word-finding difficulties, decreased output of nouns. Possible alexia & agraphia.

22

Conduction aphasia (location)

path between sensory and motor speech centers (arcuate fasciculus) or insula or deep to supermarginal gyrus

23

Characteristics of conduction aphasia

Fluent aphasia. Preserved comprehension with impaired repetition and literal paraphasias.

24

Transcortical sensory aphasia location

Posterior parieto-temporal, sparing Wernicke's area

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Transcortical sensory aphasia characteristics

Fluent. Intact repetition, poor auditory comp, paraphasias

26

Wernicke's aphasia location

Posterior third of superior temporal gyrus

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Wernicke's aphasia characteristics

Fluent but meaningless speech; severe auditory comprehension deficit; jargon, paraphasias, & neologisms; poor reading comprehension; writing deficits

28

Nonfluent aphasias

Broca's, transcortical motor, global aphasia, mixed nonfluent aphasia

29

Global aphasia (common location of lesion)

Left MCA (entire perisylvian region)

30

Global aphasia (characteristics)

Nonfluent aphasia. Ranges from mutism to total repetitive jargon or neologistic output (fluent but incomprehensible speech). Poor comprehension & repetition

31

Transcortical motor aphasia location

frontal lobe; anterior and superior to Broca's area

32

Characteristics of transcortical motor aphasia

Nonfluent. Intact repetition; lack of spontaneous speech; short, telegraphic sentences; agrammatism & paraphasias.

33

Broca's aphasia location

Nonfluent. Lateral frontal, suprasylvian, pre-Rolandic, extending into adjacent subcortical periventricular white matter

34

Standardized aphasia tests

Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), Western Aphasia Battery (BAD), Minnesota Test of Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA), Multilingual Aphasia Examination (MAE), Porch Index of Communicative Ability (PICA), Aphasia Diagnostic Profiles (ADP)

35

Broca's aphasia characteristics

Agrammatism; effortful speech; short, telegraphic phrases; presence of apraxia; slow speech rate, lacking intonation; poor reading & writing ability; relatively good auditory comprehension

36

Functional aphasia assessment tools

Functional Communication Profile (FCP), Communicative Abilities in Daily Living (CADL), Communicative Effectiveness Profile (CETI), ASHA Functional Assessment of Communication Skills for Adults (ASHA-FACS

37

Prognosis for tx of aphasia is better in patients who are:

younger & healthier; better educated & in verbally demanding occupations; whose lesions are smaller; who have no othermedical or behavioral disorders; who have good hearing acuity; who have less severe aphasia; whose tx is initiated soon after onset; whose family members are `involved

38

Commissural fibers

Facilitates communication btw rt and lft hemispheres by connecting cortical areas of the 2 hemispheres

39

Reliability

Results are replicable. If a test is reliable, it yields consistent results. Reliability is a prerequisite for measurement validity

40

Split-half reliability

Test's internal consistency. Scores from one half of the test should correlate with results from the other half the two halves give the same results

41

Parallel-forms reliability

Administering parallel forms of the test to the same group of people.

42

Test-retest reliability

Test's stability over time. Administer the same test multiple times to the same group and the scores should be similar

43

Rater reliability

Level of agreement among individuals rating a test. Intra-rater and Inter-rater

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Intra-rater reliability

Results are consistent with the same person rating the test more than once

45

Inter-rater reliability

Results are consistent with more than one person rating the test.

46

Validity

Validity A test is valid when it measures what it's supposed to

47

Face validity

It appears to measure what it's supposed to measure

48

Content validity

Tests contents are representative of the skill being assessed

49

Construct validity

Test measures theoretical construct which explains the behavior

50

criterion validity

Use external criteria- concurrent or predictive validity

51

Predictive validity

Test's ability to predict performance (ex: GRE)