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Reflexive vocalizations

0-1 months. Crying, coughs, hiccups, related to newborn's physical state



2-3 mos. Sounds produced w/ a definite stop and start to oral movements. Back consonants and back and middle vowels w/ incomplete resonance



4-6 mos. Greater independent control of tongue; prolonged strings of sounds; more labial sounds; experiments with sound


Canonical babbling

6-10 mos. Repetitive syllable production; increased lip control; labial and alveolar plosives /p, b, t, d/, nasals, and /j/ begin to emerge


jargon/ 1st words

11-14 mos. Greater variation in the sequences of syllables, creating so-called diverse babbling (e.g. ma-moo-mee); elevates tongue tip; intonational patterns; consistent forms (sound-meaning relationships); predominance of /m, w, b, p/; first words emerge - consist primarily of CV, VC, CVCV reduplicated, and CVCV patterns


Piagetian theory

cognitive developmental theory which describes "ages and stages" components that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities


Piaget's stages

sensorimotor (birth-2yrs), preoperational (2-7 yrs), concrete operational (7-11 yrs), formal operational (11-18+ yrs)


Information-processing theory

Humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment


Social learning theory

States that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through modeling and observational learning


Nativist theories

Nature. Include Chomsky's transformational grammar (or generative grammar and the theories of Jerry Fodor and Eric Lenneberg. These theories view the acquisition of language as being based more on inherent abilities or mechanisms than on environmental influences


Behavioral theories

Nurture. Such as Skinner's find language acquisition to be a form of operant conditioning in which linguistic behavior is shaped by the consequences of verbal responses.


Empiricist theories

Recognizes the interaction between nature and nurture, but puts more emphasis on the role of learning, or nurture, and finds that the inherent, or nature, part is a general cognitive learning mechanism


Emergentist theories

(e.g. MacWhinney's Competition Model) Such theories claim that language acquisition is a cognitive process emerging from the interactions of biology and the environment.


age 3

/p, m, h, w/ typically mastered


age 4

/b, k, g, t, f, n/ and "ng" typically mastered


age 5

/d/ typically mastered


age 6

/l/ typically mastered


age 7

/s, z, v/, "ch", "sh", "j", voiceless "th", and "zuh" typically mastered


sounds mastered latest

/r/ sounds and voiced "th"


Parents bring their 4-year-old daughter in for SLP evaluations. They are concerned about /r/ sound production and periods of stuttering for the last 18 months. SLP observes that child exhibits sound-syllable repetitions on 30 percent of words. Best action for SLP to take?

Provide stuttering intervention but no articulation intervention for /r/ at the
present time because /r/ typically isn't mastered until after age 7


Stage I- Brown's grammatical morphemes

Age: 1.5 yrs
Morphemes: Present progressive -ing
Prepositions in & on
Plural -s
Irregular past tense verbs (e.g. I ran)


Stage II- Brown's grammatical morphemes

Age: 2 yrs
irregular past tense-->ran, sat
Morphemes: Possessive -'s
Uncontractible copula be (e.g. He was sad).


Stage III Brown's grammatical morphemes

Age: 4 yrs
past tense: ed, poured
Articles a, the, an
Regular 3rd person singular -s (e.g. daddy drives fast).


Stage IV Brown's grammatical morphemes

Age: ?yrs
Irregular 3rd person singular (e.g. We did it).
Uncontractible auxiliary (e.g. Mommy was sleeping).
Contractible copula be (e.g. She's funny. They are funny)
Contractible auxiliary (e.g. He's eating. They are eating).
*auxiliaries (e.g. will, have, must, would)


Operant conditioning

form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength


Classical conditioning

form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US



graph of the amplitude of particle movement (vertical axis) as a function of time (horizontal axis)


Source-filter theory

Energy from a sound source is modified by the resonating system (a filter) to yield the acoustic signal of speech. From vowels, the energy source is usually VF vibration and resonating system in vocal tract



a whole-number multiple of a fundamental component. For human voice, fundamental component is fundamental frequency of vocal cord vibration (125 Hz for men and 225 Hz for women).



vowels are associated w/ high-energy dark bands that run horizontally. These bands are resonances of the vocal tract called formants


whispered speech



T/F consonants have formants

False, because they are not periodic (i.e. they are aperodic)



a graphic or photographic representation of a spectrum. 3-D analysis printed on 2-D surface. Horizontal dimension = time; vertical dimension = frequency; darkness = intensity. Each vertical line on a spectrogram represents a vocal fold pulse (single vibration)vowels vary widely in direction


Velopharyngeal insufficiency

VP insufficiency occurs due to an anatomical or structural defect. This is most commonly associated with cleft palate. The primary effects of the VP insufficiency are air-flow escape and hypernasality. Secondary effects are disorders in speech articulation (distortions, substitutions and omissions)


Major factor underlying speech impairment in persons w/ cleft palate

Palatopharyngeal insufficiency


Velopharyngeal incompetence

VP incompetence describes dysfunction of an anatomically intact VP mechanism as in patients with neuromuscular disorders. VP incompetence is traditionally managed by a palatal lift prosthesis.


Palatal lift

Palatal lift appropriate when the VPI is caused by poor movement of the velum. The anterior, retaining portion clasps to the teeth and a posterior tailpiece pushes the soft palate up into position to obturate the nasopharynx



Obturator appropriate when the VPI is caused by a deficiency in the length of the soft palate to close the velopharyngeal port.


Pharyngeal flap

raises a vertical flap of tissue from the posterior pharyngeal wall. The flap is pulled across the nasopharynx and sutured into the velum. This leaves two openings on either side of the flap that are closed during speech by the inward movement of the lateral pharyngeal walls


Instruments used to assess velopharyngeal function

Flexible endoscopy, Videofluoroscopy Cephalometric radiography


Tx approaches for remediation of speech resonance disorders

Surgery such as a pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty, may be recommended to correct moderate to severe velopharyngeal dysfunction. Speech therapy is a great tool for children who have speech errors and may be an effective treatment option for mild resonance disorders. The goal of therapy is to help a child learn to use his/her tongue, lips, and velopharyngeal valve correctly


8-yr-old with repaired palatal cleft has received speech intervention for 2 years to reduce moderately severe hypernasality and nasal emission. Cognitive and linguistic skills are normal. Data supports that abnormal speech characteristics are result of inadequate velopharyngeal mechanism. There have been small improvements, but none in past 6 - 9 months. Which of following is most appropriate course of action for SLP to take at this point

Refer child to cleft palate tame for consideration of surgical or prosthetic management


2 months after undergoing surgery to improve velopharyngeal function, a client continues to exhibit nasal airflow and articulatory compensations in production of pressure consonants. The SLP would most appropriately

provide speech treatment


8-yr-old with moderately severe hypernasality has persistent nasal regurgitation following and adenoidectomy performed 6-months earlier. Child's speech is likely to show greatest improvement

with pharyngeal flap surgery


Substitutions most likely to occur in conjunction with hyponasality

/b/ for /m/