Flashcards in maggie praxis 3 Deck (45):
0-1 months. Crying, coughs, hiccups, related to newborn's physical state
2-3 mos. Sounds produced w/ a definite stop and start to oral movements. Back consonants and back and middle vowels w/ incomplete resonance
4-6 mos. Greater independent control of tongue; prolonged strings of sounds; more labial sounds; experiments with sound
6-10 mos. Repetitive syllable production; increased lip control; labial and alveolar plosives /p, b, t, d/, nasals, and /j/ begin to emerge
jargon/ 1st words
11-14 mos. Greater variation in the sequences of syllables, creating so-called diverse babbling (e.g. ma-moo-mee); elevates tongue tip; intonational patterns; consistent forms (sound-meaning relationships); predominance of /m, w, b, p/; first words emerge - consist primarily of CV, VC, CVCV reduplicated, and CVCV patterns
cognitive developmental theory which describes "ages and stages" components that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities
sensorimotor (birth-2yrs), preoperational (2-7 yrs), concrete operational (7-11 yrs), formal operational (11-18+ yrs)
Humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment
Social learning theory
States that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through modeling and observational learning
Nature. Include Chomsky's transformational grammar (or generative grammar and the theories of Jerry Fodor and Eric Lenneberg. These theories view the acquisition of language as being based more on inherent abilities or mechanisms than on environmental influences
Nurture. Such as Skinner's find language acquisition to be a form of operant conditioning in which linguistic behavior is shaped by the consequences of verbal responses.
Recognizes the interaction between nature and nurture, but puts more emphasis on the role of learning, or nurture, and finds that the inherent, or nature, part is a general cognitive learning mechanism
(e.g. MacWhinney's Competition Model) Such theories claim that language acquisition is a cognitive process emerging from the interactions of biology and the environment.
/p, m, h, w/ typically mastered
/b, k, g, t, f, n/ and "ng" typically mastered
/d/ typically mastered
/l/ typically mastered
/s, z, v/, "ch", "sh", "j", voiceless "th", and "zuh" typically mastered
sounds mastered latest
/r/ sounds and voiced "th"
Parents bring their 4-year-old daughter in for SLP evaluations. They are concerned about /r/ sound production and periods of stuttering for the last 18 months. SLP observes that child exhibits sound-syllable repetitions on 30 percent of words. Best action for SLP to take?
Provide stuttering intervention but no articulation intervention for /r/ at the
present time because /r/ typically isn't mastered until after age 7
Stage I- Brown's grammatical morphemes
Age: 1.5 yrs
Morphemes: Present progressive -ing
Prepositions in & on
Irregular past tense verbs (e.g. I ran)
Stage II- Brown's grammatical morphemes
Age: 2 yrs
irregular past tense-->ran, sat
Morphemes: Possessive -'s
Uncontractible copula be (e.g. He was sad).
Stage III Brown's grammatical morphemes
Age: 4 yrs
past tense: ed, poured
Articles a, the, an
Regular 3rd person singular -s (e.g. daddy drives fast).
Stage IV Brown's grammatical morphemes
Irregular 3rd person singular (e.g. We did it).
Uncontractible auxiliary (e.g. Mommy was sleeping).
Contractible copula be (e.g. She's funny. They are funny)
Contractible auxiliary (e.g. He's eating. They are eating).
*auxiliaries (e.g. will, have, must, would)
form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength
form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US
graph of the amplitude of particle movement (vertical axis) as a function of time (horizontal axis)
Energy from a sound source is modified by the resonating system (a filter) to yield the acoustic signal of speech. From vowels, the energy source is usually VF vibration and resonating system in vocal tract
a whole-number multiple of a fundamental component. For human voice, fundamental component is fundamental frequency of vocal cord vibration (125 Hz for men and 225 Hz for women).
vowels are associated w/ high-energy dark bands that run horizontally. These bands are resonances of the vocal tract called formants
T/F consonants have formants
False, because they are not periodic (i.e. they are aperodic)
a graphic or photographic representation of a spectrum. 3-D analysis printed on 2-D surface. Horizontal dimension = time; vertical dimension = frequency; darkness = intensity. Each vertical line on a spectrogram represents a vocal fold pulse (single vibration)vowels vary widely in direction
VP insufficiency occurs due to an anatomical or structural defect. This is most commonly associated with cleft palate. The primary effects of the VP insufficiency are air-flow escape and hypernasality. Secondary effects are disorders in speech articulation (distortions, substitutions and omissions)
Major factor underlying speech impairment in persons w/ cleft palate
VP incompetence describes dysfunction of an anatomically intact VP mechanism as in patients with neuromuscular disorders. VP incompetence is traditionally managed by a palatal lift prosthesis.
Palatal lift appropriate when the VPI is caused by poor movement of the velum. The anterior, retaining portion clasps to the teeth and a posterior tailpiece pushes the soft palate up into position to obturate the nasopharynx
Obturator appropriate when the VPI is caused by a deficiency in the length of the soft palate to close the velopharyngeal port.
raises a vertical flap of tissue from the posterior pharyngeal wall. The flap is pulled across the nasopharynx and sutured into the velum. This leaves two openings on either side of the flap that are closed during speech by the inward movement of the lateral pharyngeal walls
Instruments used to assess velopharyngeal function
Flexible endoscopy, Videofluoroscopy Cephalometric radiography
Tx approaches for remediation of speech resonance disorders
Surgery such as a pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty, may be recommended to correct moderate to severe velopharyngeal dysfunction. Speech therapy is a great tool for children who have speech errors and may be an effective treatment option for mild resonance disorders. The goal of therapy is to help a child learn to use his/her tongue, lips, and velopharyngeal valve correctly
8-yr-old with repaired palatal cleft has received speech intervention for 2 years to reduce moderately severe hypernasality and nasal emission. Cognitive and linguistic skills are normal. Data supports that abnormal speech characteristics are result of inadequate velopharyngeal mechanism. There have been small improvements, but none in past 6 - 9 months. Which of following is most appropriate course of action for SLP to take at this point
Refer child to cleft palate tame for consideration of surgical or prosthetic management
2 months after undergoing surgery to improve velopharyngeal function, a client continues to exhibit nasal airflow and articulatory compensations in production of pressure consonants. The SLP would most appropriately
provide speech treatment
8-yr-old with moderately severe hypernasality has persistent nasal regurgitation following and adenoidectomy performed 6-months earlier. Child's speech is likely to show greatest improvement
with pharyngeal flap surgery