Fluency Flashcards Preview

praxis > Fluency > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluency Deck (30):
1

Sheehan

stuttering indicates a social role conflict

2

stuttering prevalence

familial incidence is higher than in general population,
sons of stuttering mothers run greater risk
than sons of stuttering fathers,
blood relatives of a stuttering woman run greater risk
than those of a stuttering man

3

preschool stuttering

more likely on function words

4

adaptation

progressive decrease upon repeated oral reading of a passage,
most of the reduction in stuttering occurs by the 5th reading

5

Brutten & Shoemaker

limited to part-word repetitions & sound prolongations,
due to classically conditioned negative emotion,
some dysfluencies are operantly conditioned

6

Bloodstein

advocated stuttering may be caused by
any belief that speech is a difficult task
resulting in tension & speech fragmentation

7

Van Riper

developed the fluent stuttering treatment
aimed at reducing the abnormality of stuttering through
cancellations,
pull-outs,
preparatory sets

8

fluency shaping technique

airflow management,
gentle phonatory onset,
reduced rate of speech,
shaping normal prosody

9

cluttering

lack of anxiety or concern about speech,
use of spoonerisms,
rapid, disordered articulation
resulting in unintelligible speech,
possible high rate of dysfluencies
& disorganized thought & language

10

cluttering treatment

similar to stuttering treatment,
reducing rate of speech,
increasing awareness of speech
through audio or video

11

cerebral dominance theory

stuttering is caused by lack of unilateral dominant hemisphere

12

establishing prevalence

head-count # of individuals
who currently have a particular disorder

13

response cost

direct stuttering reduction method,
losing a tangible reinforcer after every instance of stuttering

14

stutter-more-fluently approach

discuss feelings & attitudes toward situation,
desensitizing,
modify stuttering through use of
cancellations & pull-outs
(Van Riper)

15

neurogenic stuttering assessment plan

evaluate medical records,
ensure neurological disease diagnosis,
assess that the pattern of communication justifies diagnosis

16

neurogenic stuttering

minimum or no effects of DAF & adaptation,
may be transient or persistent,
assessed & treated in the context of the neurological disease
& associated with additional speech disorders

17

3 main fluency disorders

stuttering,
cluttering,
neurogenic stuttering

18

definition of stuttering

all types of dysfluencies that exceed a measure such as 5% of words spoken,
production of part-word repetitions & speech-sound prolongations,
moments or events judged to be stutterings,
anticipatory, apprehensive, hypertonic, avoidance reaction

19

dysfluency forms

repetitions,
prolongations,
broken words,
interjections,
pauses,
incomplete sentences,
revisions

20

early childhood stuttering

begins as an initial increase in amount of dysfluencies,
development & varying extent of:
associated motor behaviors,
breathing abnormalities,
negative emotions,
avoidance behaviors

21

stuttering incidence

1% in US general population,
5% lifetime expectancy,
more prevalent in men than women,
higher concordance rate for identical twin

22

stimulus control

adaptation,
consistency,
adjacency,
audience size

23

consistency

persistent stuttering on the same loci

24

adjacency

new stuttering on loci adjacent to old stuttering

25

stuttering hypotheses

none are fully supported by experimental evidence

26

genetic hypotheses

single-gene and multiple-genes,
certain individuals may be predisposed

27

neurophysiological hypotheses

abnormal laryngeal control,
abnormal cerebral language processing,
or aberrant neuromotor control of speech mechanism

28

psychoanalytic hypotheses

deep-seated psychopathology

29

conditioning & learning hypotheses

faulty learning & conditioning

30

stuttering treatments

counseling & psychotherapy,
fluent stuttering method of Van Riper,
fluency shaping method,
fluency reinforcement & time-outs
(pausing after every instance),
response cost,
delayed auditory feedback & masking noise