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PSY1201 > Marihuana > Flashcards

Flashcards in Marihuana Deck (43):
1

Cannabis Sativa

Plant that is dried and smoked as marihuana

2

Marihuana

General Term to describe dried plant products of the cannabis plant, contains 0.5-11% THC

3

THC(Tetrahydrocannabinol)

Main active ingredient in marihuana and dronabinol

4

Cannabinoid

Chemical class of terpines found only in cannabis plant

5

Hashish

The dried sticky concentrated resin from the plant that contains 3.6% THC but can be as high as 28 %

6

Sinsemilla

The buds and flowering tops of female plants, average 7.5 THC but up to 24%

7

Ganja

From India, Dried tops of female plants, varied concentrations

8

Bhang

Weakest form, made from remainder of plant, ground into powder

9

Blunt

Tobacco pipe that has been emptied of tobacco and filled with marihuana
- Can have synergistic effects with nicotine
- Tobacco paper allows it to burn slower
- Looks more commonplace and acceptable
- Brings more of the smoke to the user

10

Cannabis vs Tobacco

Cannabis use has increased
Tobacco use decreased

11

Potency Marihuana

THC and CBD content increases over the years

12

Cannabinol

Metabolite of THC, and is a weak agonist to the CB receptor

13

Cannabidiol (CBD)

-Not psychoactive
- 5-HT agonist
- Contributes to anxiolytic effects
- Potent anticancer properties such as promoting cell death and decreasing cell migration and invasion
- Low affinity for CB1 but acts as an indirect agonist
- Potentiates THC effects by upregulating the number of CB1 receptors or through another CB1 mechanism
- May increase duration of effect of THC by inhibiting Cytochrome P-450 and 2C enzymes

14

C indica vs C sativa

- Indica has a higher CBD:THC ratio that is 4-5 times higher than sativa
Higher ratios tend to cause less anxiety as CBD is a cannabinoid receptor antagonist
Synthetic THC has almost no levels of CBD or CBN which explains differential effects

15

THC distribution in joint

20-40% Mainstream
40-50% Sidestream
20-30% Destroyed by burning
10-15% Cigarette Butt

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Absorption

Plasma levels peak quickly after smoking
Rapid absorption into brain immediately after smoking and then redistributed in 30 minutes
Oral absorption is slow and incomplete
First pass effect causes more production of metabolites

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Metabolism

Primary metabolite is 11-OH-THC, which is active and more potent
Converted to THC-OOH and is screened in urine
Highly lipid soluble and stored in fat
THC half life is 20-30 hours, but metabolite half life is 30-60 hours or more!

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Time Course of Effects

Subjective effects peak after 10-30 minutes
Mild hallucinogenic with some depressant and disinhibiting effects
Renders person into highly suggestible state

19

Physiological Effects

Increased heart rate- interferes with reflexes that maintain cardiovascular homeostasis
Increased workload to the heart
Decreased bloodflow to the brain
Dry mouth and throat
No consistent effect on blood pressure
Reddening of the eyes

20

Effects of Recreational Marihuana Use

Cognitive impairments- especially in those who smoked before 16
Deficits in processing speed, attention, memory and executive function
Higher impulsivity
Altered Brain Structure- Greatest in early users, lower white matter integrity associated with higher impulsivity
Early onset- smoked more marihuana more frequently

21

Experienced Users: Low Doses

High
i. initially stimulating with mild tension
ii. Pleasant feeling of well being
iii. Introspective and tranquil

22

Experienced Users: Moderate Doses

Induces sedation and sleep
Reduces the amount of REM sleep
Sense of well being and dreamy state
Perceptions are distorted
Increased sexual thoughts- explains why people report better sexual experience
Can be suppressed more easily than ethanol
Slowed time perception
Short term memory impaired
Analgesia

23

Experienced Users: High Doses

Paranoid Ideation and panic

24

Psychomotor effects

Tracking a moving object harder due to inability to sustain attention and concentration
- Complex tasks involving memory and cognitive function are most sensitive
Effects can linger for 24 hours
Simulated Flyers: Placebo vs 20 mg THC- THC subjects had more significant errors

25

Receptors

CB1 binding in CNS
CB2 binding in the peripheral system
Binding sites the highest in frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and hippocampus
Located within ascending dopamine pathway, increase DA in mesolimbic area
- Most prevalent receptor in the brain
- Receptor sites are coupled to Guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins (G-coupled)

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Metabolic Tolerance

None

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Pharmacologic Tolerance

Cannabinoid induced down regulation and desensitization of CB receptors
Rapid receptor internalization following agonist binding and receptor activation
- Marihuana is a weak agonist, so uninportant

28

Reverse Tolerance

Experienced users anticipate and therefore enhance symptoms

29

Physical Dependence

Human dosing every 4 hours for 10-20 days
Withdrawal signs peak at 8 hours
Symptoms
irritability
restlessness
nausea
vomiting
sleep disturbances
agression
loss of appetite
Signs diminish after 3 days
Readministering THC relieves symptoms

30

Marihuana vs Tobacco

Products of smoke
Decreases testosterone level and reduces the sperm count
lower birth weights
panic reactions
tachycardia
Impairs function of immune system

31

Passive Inhalation

Being in a room and inhaling secondhand smoke
Used in a defense in court
Need to be in a condensed room for 20 minutes before it shows up in urine test

32

Impaired Driving

4000 more potent than alcohol in reducing performance

33

Brain Damage

- No cases of cerebral atrophy due to chronic smoking have been found
Poor performance in radial arm maze due to permanent changes in hippocampal neurons
primate studies showed no permanent neuronal changes

34

Drug Interactions

Used in combination with other drugs
Slows absorption of alcohol- prolongs it effects
Speeds absorption of cocaine, leads to significant increases in heart rate and panic
May be used to potentiate effects of other drugs like cocaine

35

Dronabinol

FDA Approved
Used for chemotherapy
Appetite stimulation
Side effects: Dizzy, warm feeling, stomach pain, memory loss
Efficacy is modest compared to other drugs without psychoactive side effects

36

Nabilone

Synthetic Cannabinoid approved to treat nausea and vomiting, adjunct for treating neuropathic pain
Approved for use in wasting syndrome
Suppress activity in vomiting cemter

37

Canabidiol (Epidiolex)

Natural chemical in cannabis
Pure extract has unique pharmacology
Accounts for 40% of cannabinoids in marihuana
FDA orphan status for treating dravet syndrome- childhood epilepsy
Low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors
Acts as a direct antagonist to the receptor antagonist
Potentiate THC by increasing CB1 receptor density
Inverse agonist of CB2 receptor

38

Charlotte's Web

Variant in marihuana that is high in CBD, low in THC
Not popular among older users because it lacks the psychoactive effects
Appears to be effective in reducing childhood seizures, anxiety, depression

39

Endocannabinoid System- Medical Applications

Target for wasting syndrome, pain, wasting syndrome and obesity
- Chronic overstimulation of EC --> stimulation in CB1 receptor--> Increase in appetite
- CB1 antagonists can counteract this

40

Rimonaband

Selective CB1 Inverse agonist
- Treated obesity
Removed for suicidal side effects

41

Synthetic Cannabis

Herbal product marketed as natural incense
Thought to contain a mixture of legal herbs, but labs found synthetic cannabinoids
Cannabinoids not found but metabolites found in urine
- Produces high tolerance and high dependence
Increased risk for psychotic reactions
Chemical composition still unknown

42

Legalization

Schedule I Cannabis, but oral THC is Schedule II
Decriminalization now sought

43

Perceived Risk vs Use

Inversely Related