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Flashcards in Behavioral Methods Deck (19)
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General Principles

Used to screen for new drugs
Document the pharmacologic profile of the drug
Characterize the effective dose range relative to side effect profile
Separate the acute vs chronic effects of the drug


Operant Conditioning

Uses consequences to affect behavior
Modifies voluntary behavior
Differs from Pavlov, in that Pavlov deals with behaviors that change with the antecedent
Positive Reinforcement- Reward to encourage behavior
Negative Reinforcement- Remove punishment to increase behavior
Positive Punishment- add punishment to decrease behavior
Negative Punishment- Remove reward to decrease behavior


Avoidance Learning

When a behavior results in the cessation of an aversive stimulus



When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, its frequency decreases


Non-Contingent Behavior

Decreases a behavior by reinforcing an alternate more desired behavior instead


Drug Discrimination

Technique used to determine the degree to which a novel drug is similar to a standard drug
Not unlike human to identify drug class after taking drug


Conditioned Place Preference

Technique similar to drug discrimination, used to determine the degree to which a novel drug is similar to a standard
Animals are monitored for which box arm they enter


Self Administration

Gold Standard
Animals self administer the same drugs as humans
Drugs of abuse enhance brain stimulation reward or lower threshold for reward
Drugs of abuse enhance neuronal activity and/or neurotransmitters in reward relevant brain circuits


Prep Animals for Self Administration

Train animals to press lever for food pellets
Animals prepared with IV catheter
Recover from surgery
Change session to deliver a reinforcing dose of a drug for each lever press
Gradually increase the number of lever presses


Progressive Ratio

Self administration paradigm to see how many lever presses the animal would do for a reinforcer


Break Point

The number of lever presses an animal is willing to do for a single reinforcer



Used to detect antianxiety within a drug
Pairs a reinforcer with a punisher in the same session
Approach avoidance situations cause anxiety


Standardized Questionnaires

Profile of Mood States (POMS)
Used to identify and assess transient and fluctuating affective mood states
65 items, self reported, a brief version contains only 30 items
Can be administered in 5-10 minutes


Subjective Mood Assessments

Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)- measurement instrument that allows subject to rate mood or perception that is not easily measurable by other means


Body Sway

Measures a participant's ability to stay upright and steady
Measures proprioception and balance
Useful in quantifying side effects of medications


Divided Attention

Measures a participant's ability to divide cognitive resource to complete several tasks simultaneously
Usually involves same sensory modality


Wrist Actigraphy

Measures wake/rest activity
Some units allow the participant to enter a marker that has a predefined meaning


Delayed Discounting

Technique that asses a participant's ability to weigh the value of a given reinforcer now, with a reinforcer of larger value given sometime later
Individuals with substance abuse problems have lowered abilities of delayed discounting


Choice Experimental

Asking participants how much they would pay for a sample drug they just ingested