Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology Deck (21):
1

Range of Emotions

Death
Coma
Sleep- Normal
Drowsy- Normal
Normal- Normal
Aroused- Normal
Highly Excited- Normal
Convulsions
Death

2

Homeostasis

The body responding to stimuli coming from our environment
Maintenance of the internal equilibrium- keeps certain levels of ions, hormones, and molecules

3

Neuronal Anatomy

Neuron- Entire Cell
Dendrites- Branches off the main cell
Axon- Long extension coming from the cell
Axon Terminal- Where vesicles leave the neuron

4

Synaptic Transmission

Neurotransmitters held in vesicles
Exocytosis allows for the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse

5

Termination of Synaptic Action

Metabolism
Reuptake
Displacement- Through antagonist

6

Examples of Neurotransmitters

Cannabinoid
Dopamine
Serotonin
GABA
Glutamate
Adrenaline
Histamine
Opioid
Glycine
Acetylcholine

7

Dopamine

Pathways originate through 3 pathways
1. Hypothalmus to pituitary- hormonal response to schizophrenia
2. Substantia nigra to basal ganglia- Parkinson's disease
3. Midbrain to frontal cortex (medial forebrain bundle) reward and schizophrenia

8

Serotonin (5HT)

Tryptamine based transmitter that is similar to LSD
Plays a role in depression, affective states, sleep, sex, temperature regulation
Transporter is largest target of SSRIs

9

GABA

Major inhibitory neurotransmitter
High concentration in brain and spinal chord
GABAa- fast receptors and open chloride channels
GABAb- slow response of G-protein coupled type

10

Glutamate

Major Excitatory Neurotransmitter
Found on surface of nearly all neurons
Plays critical role in cortical cognitive function, motor control, cerebellum, sensory function
Regulate synaptic plasticity, involved in learning, memory and cognitive function

11

Types of Receptors

Ion Channel
G-protein activation of second messenger
Phosphorylation of key signaling molecules
Agonist- Transport in nucleus to have transcriptional and translational effects

12

Ways that Drugs Affect Synapse

1. Alter electrical transmission
2. Alter synthesis of transmitter
3. Alter transport into vesicle
4. Alter ion transport
5. Cause transmitter release from terminal
6. Prevent re-uptake back into terminal
7. Mimic the transmitter at receptor
8. Block the receptor
9. Inhibit transmitter metabolism
10. Increase transmitter metabolism

13

Limbic System

limbus or border
Forms border around the brainstem
Includes: hippocampus, hypothalmus, amygdala, olfactory tubercle, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampal gyrus

14

Limbic System- Emotion

Strong autonomic nervous system
Both sympathetic and parasympathetic
Acts to modulate influence of hypothalamus and other brain regions

15

Limbic System- Learning and Memory

Memory retained in spite of extensive damage
Problem solving typically impaired
Stimulation of temporal lobe sites results in vivid memories or flashbacks

16

Nervous System Function

Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic- "Fight or flight" reactions
-Norepinephrine
Parasympathetic-
- Controls involuntary bodily function
- SLUD response
- Acetylcholine

17

Limbic System Reward

Both positive and negative reinforcements are found in the system
Appears to modulate the influence of other system on brain function
Most effective Reinforcement Sites: hypothalamus, midbrain

18

Hippocampus

Learning and memory
Probably not "short term" memory
Secondary process in transition to "long term memory"
Theta wave EEG in response to novel stimuli- arousal and attention
Lesions lead to deficits in
- passive avoidance
- extinction
- reversal of prior discrimination
- multiple choice point maze learning
- low response rate reinforcement
- spontaneous alternation

19

Septal Area

Emotional behavior/ motor inhibition
Generally opposes amygdala
Modulate via the hypothalamus
Lesions lead to:
viciousness
Exaggerated rage
Enhanced reactivity

20

Amygdala

Emotional behavior
Lesions lead to
- placidity, lack of aggression
- Attenuate hyper-emotional states
- Hyperphagia
- Disrupts all types of avoidance behaviors
Diverse results due to different loci

21

Cingulate Gyrus

- Limbic "cortex"
Motor facilitation
Lesions lead to
-inhibitory and facilitatory, depending on location of cut
- impairment of active avoidance