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Flashcards in Nicotine Deck (20)
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Total particulate matter in smoke, excluding nicotine and water


Varying levels of tar

ultra light- 1-6 mg
light- 6-16 mg
regular- >15 mg
Attained by ventilating filters to dilute smoke
Many smokers block the vents while smoking to increase the amount of tar and nicotine



Average tar yield decreased 44% from 68-98
Average nicotine yield decreased 38%
Use of low-tar products increases with
in females
Many believe low-yield menthol or additive free cigarettes to be "safer"- WRONG
Many switch to these brands instead of quitting



1.1 billion smokers in the world
930 million in developing countries
Tobacco kills 6 million people each year
>5 million of those deaths are result of direct tobacco use
600,000 due to second hand smoke
84% are male
Teenagers largest growing group of nicotine users
Price the only good deterrent


Types of Cigarette Smoke

Mainstream- smoke inhaled
Sidestream- Smoke coming off the cigarette
Second-hand- Smoke that has been exhaled


Abuse Liability

Cigarette and other forms of tobacco are reinforcing and produce dependence
Nicotine is the chemical that is responsible for tobacco's reinforcing effects


Nicotine Levels

Baseline increases as the number of cigarettes increase


Behavioral Profile after 1 Cigarette

within 1/2 an hour


Behavioral profile of IV nicotine

Dysphoria and Euphoria within 30 minutes


Nicotine potency vs frequency

Higher the concentration
Lower the frequency



Absorbed in lungs, buccal cavity, nasal mucosa, transdermal, GI tract
Inhalation most rapid, then mucosal, then dermal



Nicotine carried to liver
Metabolized to 90% cotinine, 10% nicotine N-oxide
Nicotine is the active agent


Nicotinic Receptors

Acetylcholine sensitive, found in both the CNS and PNS (brain, basal ganglia and striated muscle)
CNS sites include substantia nigra, ventral tegmentum and associated with DA neurons
Found on presynaptic sites- explains how it is able to release DA and serotonin


Cholinergic Receptor Function

Acetylcholine provides an influx of Na into the cell
Decreases the negative potential, increases neuron firing rate
Consists of 5 protein subunits
Total of 9 alpha and 5 beta discovered


Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors contain a b2 subunit are most prevalent
Mediate the reinforcing effects of nicotine
Abnormally high concentration due to chronic nicotine use can interfere with maintaining abstinence


CNS effects- novel smokers

Dizziness, lightheadedness, vertigo
Nausea, vomiting secondary to stimulation of chemoreceptor trigger zone, Can also occur in chronic smokers, under forced rapid smoking
Reduces the tremor of Parkinson's disease, but elicits a physiologic tremor secondary to NE and DA release and sympathetic stimulation


Nicotine Reinforcement

Glucocorticoids, ACTH and endorphins involved
Nicotine receptors on ventral tegmental area project to nucleus accumbens, stimulate DA neurons, and releases DA
Nicotine has both positive and negative reinforcement
Autonomic nervous system effects may serve as secondary reinforcers
Nicotine is a primary positive reinforcer
Depending on dose, has both stimulant and depressant like effects
Smokers rate IV nicotine as rewarding, similar to morphine and anphetamines- euphorigenic
Because of indirect effects on DA, upper limits of reinforcement are limited



Released many disposable versions of the e-cigarette
Many different flavors from which to choose
Wide range of nicotine levels are provided
Cartridges sold separately and contain liquid/nicotine solution as well as flavorings
Smoke does not contain any combustion products, so seen as safer, but there are still wide range of chemicals


Strength of E-Cig

4 flavors, nicotine free, light, medium, full flavor
Full flavor = 16-24 mg
Light = 4-8 mg
Not intended to be smoked all in one sitting


FDA investigation

1. Diethylene glycol and other carcinogens found
2. Nicotine levels did not correspond with labels
3. Nicotine levels were not consistent among products
4. Traces of nicotine in nicotine free packages were found
5. Marketed to younger generations without appropriate labeling
FDA does not approve