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Flashcards in Steroids Deck (31):
1

AAS

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
anabolic- Tissue building
Androgenic- Male sex characteristics

2

Role Model

Image of heroes changed over time
Children learn at young age that athletic performance and strength are admired

3

Testosterone

Synthesized in testes and adrenals
Acetate --> cholesterol --> pregnenoloe --> testosterone
Released to the blood stream
50% bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
Free testosterone available for diffusion into cells
Metabolizes into epitestosterone

4

Oral Testosterone

Remain in body for weeks
Detectable in urine via GC assays

5

Injectable Preparations

More rapidly eliminated
Difficult to detect testosterone, only via TE ratio

6

TE Ration

testosterone/epitestosterone ratio
healthy male is 1.2
Olympics set 1.6, if higher, endogenous testosterone was used

7

Androgenic Effets

Male Secondary Sex Characteristics
- Thicker skin
- Thickened vocal chords
- Facial hair
- Oily skin, acne
Antidiuretic
- Responsible for weight gain- puffy

8

Anabolic Effects

Promote muscle growth via protein synthesis
Slow muscle breakdown (anti catabolic)
Promote RBC production
Speed recovery from injury
Work primarily in highly trained athlete

9

Research Study Findings

Positive Findings
Weight lifters cleared heavier weights
Users gained weights
Complemented high protein diet
Increased aggression
- Harder training, longer training session, less time off due to injury
Negative Findings
1/10 Dose typically used
Diets were not matched for protein
Duration of treatment was too short
Actual training programs not matched
--> unethical to give large amounts of steroid in research setting

10

Mechanism of Action

Free testosterone attaches to cellular receptor
Enters cell body to nucleus
Promotes cell transcription
Increases protein synthesis
Response is delayed but long lasting

11

Placebo

Substantial belief that power and efficacy of steroid can lead to increased performance without any active ingredients
Many users claim to "sense" the effects of steroids
Promoted because the bloating effect of water retention in the muscle (growth in size, not strength)

12

Counterfeit Drugs

Unknown content and purity
Major deception via mail order- even fake labels
Most come from Mexico or EU

13

Physiologic Side Effects/ Toxicity

Myocardial infarction, sudden arrhythmic death and stroke
Athletes have abnormal hearts
Abusers more prone to thrombosis due to 50% decrease in high density lipoprotein levels, Hyperlipidemia = Platelet aggregation

14

Liver Side effects/ toxicity

Primarily due to oral preparation
Jaundice
Hepatocellular adenoma
- similar to oral contraceptives
- Incidence is 1-3%
Malignant profile is seen
Benigh features regress when stop

15

Psychiatric Disturbance

Steroid- related psychosis
Paranoia, irritable, hostile
Uncontrolled violent behavior
"roid rage", agression
Used as a defense in murder cases

16

Patterns of use/ Abuse

Rarely is immeadiate reinforcement felt
No discrimination
High placebo response
Taken 1-2 times per week
beneficial effects take weeks to show
Some but not all self-administered in animal models
No psychoactive effects in humans
Use pattern is systematic and spread out over a long period of time
Often stashed for use at a later time

17

Abuser Profile

Athlete- For greater athletic performance
Bodyguard/police officer bouncer- greater physical stature
Highschooler- just for looks

18

Athlete abuser profile

Cycles, using different steroids in sequence, lasting 6-12 weeks
Plateauing avoided by staggering drugs at different times

19

Stacking

Using multiple steroids at same time and believing it is superior to using one

20

Pyramiding

Doses progressively increased and then decreased over the cycle

21

Agressive Abuser Profile

Doses are typically high, but shorter runs
Not combined with exercise
Use begins late in life
Oral preparations preferred

22

Appearance Abuser Profile

Low doses than athletes use
Weight gain due to water retention
Highschool 5% boys, 1% girls
Oral preparations preferred

23

Steroid Dependence

Withdrawal symptoms reported
Craving
Fatigue
Depression
Reslessness
Anorexia
Sleep Disorder
Headache

24

Erythropoetin

EPO
Natural hormone secreted by kidneys
Acts on bone marrow to make more red blood cells
Recombinant EPO is synthetic version

Approved for use in AZT treated HIV+ with kidney disease

25

EPO Side Effects

Chest pain, swelling due to fluid retention, fast pulse, headache, high blood pressure, increased RBC

26

Clenbuterol Dilabuterol

Not a steriod, beta 2 agonist
used to increase breathing and strength for trating asthma
Claims to increase in muscle mass have not been confirmed
Slows the loss of muscle mass in diseases
Lab tests now available

27

Androstenedione

Steroid hormone
Structurally related to testosterone, easily converted
Not as potent as testosterone
Used by athletes to increase muscle strength and stamina

28

Androstenedione Mechanism of Action

Binds to cell receptors
Increases protein synthesis

29

Diuretics

Increases urine flow/production
Not ergogenic
Used to clear banned substances from urine quickly to avoid detection
Can be used to reduce weight for sports
Can result in dehydration
Can decrease performance in endurance sports because dehydration decreases plasma volume
Banned by all athletic organizations

30

Human Growth Hormone

Hormone released from the pituitary gland
Regulates growth
Injectable route
Used by athletes to increase muscle and body size
Anabolic effects increased if used with thyroid and insulin
May increase burning of body fat- effects not consistent
Not likely to enhance endurance
Has to be injected daily and sometimes divided into multiple doses
Occasionally may be good, mimics natural release
banned, but no tests for detection

31

Creatine

Nutrient found in red meat
Produces energy, restores muscle
Increases lean body mass, likely due to retention
Long term effects not studies