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Flashcards in Masonry Deck (41):
1

How many ways are there to mix mortar and what are they

Portland cement, masonry cement

2

What are the ingredients of mortar

Portland cement, lime, sand, water

3

What is a different set of ingredients of mortar

Masonry cement, sand, water

4

How many types of mortar are there and what are they

M, S, N, O

5

How many ways can you physically mix mortar

Machine mixing, hand mixing

6

What is the minimum machine mixing time for mortar

3 minutes

7

How long do you allow dry ingredients to mix in mixer before adding water

One minute

8

What are the three types of sand

Manufactured, natural, stand

9

What are the desirable properties of mortar

Plasticity, water retention, strength and durability

10

What are the three kinds of levels

Plum, Level, Square

11

What does it mean to be "plum"

Vertical on two planes

12

What does it mean to be level

Horizontally straight

13

What does it mean to be square

90 degrees on all corners

14

True or False: A foundation must be Square AND Level AND Plum

True

15

True/False: A Cinder block may be load bearing

False

16

True/False: A Concrete block (or a Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)) may be load bearing

True

17

What are the 5 parts of a wall

Corner/end
Field
Control/expansion joints
Wall intersections
Rough opening (doors/windows)

18

What is the definition of masonry construction

To build a structure from any building materials that consist of units held together with mortar; concrete block, brick, stones, clay tile and sometimes even glass block .

19

What factors effect the bond strength of mortar

Type and quality of mortar
M,S,N,O
• Workability or plasticity
• Water retentivity
• Surface texture of the mortar bed
• Quality of workmanship in laying the units.

20

What are the two ways to mix mortar

Portland Cement
Masonry Cement

21

Type M motar

Used for below-grade masonry that contacts earth (i.e. foundations, retaining walls, walkways)
1 part portland cement
1/4 part hydrated lime or lime putty 3 parts sand
OR
1 part portland cement
1 part Type II masonry cement 6 parts sand

22

Type S Mortar

Used where high resistance to lateral forces are required.
1 part portland cement
1/2 part hydrated lime or lime putty 4 1/2 parts sand
OR
1/2 part portland cement
1 part hydrated lime or lime putty 4 1/2 parts sand

23

Type N mortar

Used in above-grade and exposed masonry where high compressive and/or lateral strengths are not require.
1 part portland cement
1 part hydrated lime or lime putty 6 parts sand
OR
1 part Type II masonry cement
3 parts sand

24

Type O

Used for load-bearing, solid-unit walls when the
compressive stresses do not
exceed 100 psi, and the subject to freezing and thawing in the
masonry is not
presence of a lot of water.
1 part portland cement
2 parts hydrated lime or lime putty 9 parts sand
OR
1 part Type I or Type II masonry cement 3 parts sand

25

Calcium chloride cannot be more than what percent by weight of your mortar (when used as accelerant)

2%

26

When should Calcium chloride not be used

For steel- reinforced masonry (i.e. reinforced concrete)

27

What two mortar materials should be covered to prevent moisture loss

Sand and Lime

28

How wide does the footing have to be

2x wall thickness

29

How do you lay the first course

Locate the corners.
Lay mortar bed.
Lay blocks on corners first, then work
inward toward the middle.
Ensure all block is level and plumb.
Ensure all mortar joints are filled and tooled.

30

Describe laying corners

Build up the corners 4 or 5 courses high.
Step each course back one-half block.
Mortar for horizontal joints is applied to the
top of the course previously laid.
Apply mortar for the vertical joints to either the block being laid or to the block previously laid.

31

When do you tool the joints

Once the mortar becomes
“Thumbprint” hard.

32

In what order do you strike the joint

Vertical first, then horizontal

33

What are the two types of lintels

• Precast from concrete.
• Constructed from lintel block,steel reinforcement bar, and concrete.

34

Equation: Estimate number of masonry blocks

Linear Feet x Height x 1.125 = Total number block

35

Equation: Estimate masonry cement in block build

Total Block / 100 x 3 = Bags of masonry cement

36

Equation: Estimate sand in masonry build

1 Ton of sand per every 8 bags of masonry cement; Therefore, divide number of bags by 8

37

Equation: Number of gallons of water per bag of masonry cement

Water = 8 gl per bag

38

Equation: Number of bricks in masonry build

Linear Foot x Height x 6.75 = number of Bricks

39

Equation: Estimate masonry cement in brick build

Total Bricks / 1000 x 8 = Masonry bags

40

Equation: Estimate sand in masonry brick build

1 Ton of sand per 1,000 bricks; Therefore, divide number of bricks by 1,000

41

What is the max length a wall can be without an expansion joint

25 feet