The concept from economics and game theory addressing dynamics of a non-cooperative game, referring to a situation in which players in a game pursue the optimal strategy while knowing the other players' strategies, is commonly named after what mathematician and Nobel laureate?

John Forbes Nash Jr.

A posthumous paper by mathematician August Ferdinand Möbius explores the properties of one-sided surfaces via a strip, connected at the ends with a half-twist in the middle. Fellow German mathematician Felix Klein pursued a similar illustration using a theoretical surface that is today, perhaps due to a mistranslation of the original German, most commonly referred to as what type of object?

Bottle

What metric unit of area is roughly equal to 2.47 acres in the U.S. customary system?

Hectare

First proposed in the 1860s and controversial at the time, the scientific laws known as the law of segregation, the law of independent assortment, and the law of dominance are known collectively as a set of laws named after what Augustinian friar?

Gregor Mendel

While a quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is known in North America as a trapezoid, outside North America it is known as what? The term in question, to North Americans, describes a quadrilateral with no parallel sides (which, outside North America, is simply called a general irregular quadrilateral).

Trapezium

A historically significant mathematics problem, asking, essentially, if a graph on four nodes with seven edges has a "Eulerian path," was answered in the negative (by Leonhard Euler himself) using the seven bridges of what Prussian city?

Konigsberg

In his Elements, Euclid states five postulates of plane geometry. Four of them are considered fundamental, and apply in many non-Euclidean geometries as well. What geometric term is typically used to name the fifth postulate, despite Euclid not using the word in the postulate's description?

Parallel

This is the name of the division sign.

Obelus

British mathematician Charles Hinton was known for coining this term, used to describe a shape in the fourth dimension.

Tesseract

What is the term in mathematics for a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper divisors (i.e., its divisors not including the number itself)? The first such number is 6 (1+2+3); the next four are 28, 496, 8,128, and 33,550,336.

Perfect number

Among the named properties of equalities in mathematics are the transitive property (if a=b and b=c, then a=c), the symmetric property (if a=b, then b=a), and what other property, which states that any quantity is equal to itself (a=a)?

Reflexive Property

"No three positive integers a, b, and c satisfy the equation a^n + b^n = c^n for any integer value of n greater than 2." This mathematical statement is associated with British mathematician and Oxford professor Sir Andrew Wiles, but even moreso with what Frenchman?

Pierre de Fermat

99/70 ("Ninety-nine seventieths") is a frequently used rational approximation for an irrational number that is most commonly referred to as what?

Square root of two

The cube is one of the 5 “platonic solids” or regular these.

Polyhedra

In mathematics, the best-known and most commonly used coordinate system for identifying a point in a plane is named after what man, who invented it in the 17th century?

Rene Descartes

Whose "witch" is pictured here?

(Maria Gaetana) Agnesi

What term can be used in geometry for the region of a circle bounded by an arc of the circle and a chord that connects the endpoints of the arc, and also for the portion of a sphere included between a pair of parallel planes that intersect the sphere? Note, while these are common uses of the term in question in geometry, they are not the most common.

Segmemt

This geometric shape is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it. A "right" version of this shape is a parallel truncation of a right pyramid or right cone.

Frustum

In 1952 an early computer was used to discover the thirteenth Mersenne one of these numbers.

Prime

What is a fractal?

A curve or geometric figure, each part of which has the same statistical character as the whole. Fractals are useful in modeling structures in which similar patterns recur at progressively smaller scales, and in describing partly random or chaotic phenomena such as crystal growth, fluid turbulence and galaxy formation.

A quadrant is a circular measure equal to this many degrees.

90

What term in mathematics most commonly represents the set of all values that a given function's independent variable (e.g. "x" in y=2x) can have?

Domain

What branch of mathematics, which dates back to 1874, is based on binary operators like union, intersection, and Cartesian product?

Arithmetic has addition, subtraction and so on; unions and intersections are from __ set theory__.

What is the term for the mathematical property, applicable to addition and multiplication (but not subtraction or division), that states that a given operation's result is independent of the order of the numbers/objects in the operation? For example, 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 and 2 x 6 = 6 x 2.

Commutative