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Flashcards in Med Surg Cardiac Deck (44):
0

What are findings frequently identified with patients with cardiac disorders?

Hemoptysis
Cough
Crackles
Wheezes

1

For a pt with a cardiac disorder, what components of the abdominal assessment is necessary!

Abdominal distention, indicates ascites which develops with right ventricular or biventricular HF
Hepatojugular reflux, performed when right or biventricular HF is suspected a positive test aids in confirming HF.
Bladder distention, urine output is a imp indicator of cardiac function, reduced urine output may indicate inadequate renal perfusion or less serious problems.

2

What is kyphoscoliosis and what does it do

A spinal deformity that occurs in many older adult patients,it,any move the cardiac apex downward so that palpation of the apical impulse is obscured

3

What is orthostatic hypotension

A result of impaired barks receptor function that normally regulates BP Places older adults adults at risk for falls

4

What is the diagnosis of MI made on

Evaluating the history and physical examination, the 12 lead electrocardiogram and the results of laboratory tests,that measure serum cardiac biomarkers

5

Wha is measured to evaluate CAD

Cholesterol
Triglycerides
Lipoproteins

6

What is the normal level of cholesterol

Less than 200

7

What is cholesterol required for

Hormone synthesis and cell membrane formation
It is found in large quantities in brain and nerve tissue

8

What are the 2 major sources of cholesterol

Animal products
The liver, where it is synthesized

9

What are normal LDL levels

Less than 160
They are the primary transporters of cholesterol and triglycerides into the cell

10

What is the harmful effects of LDLs

The depositing of these substances in the walls of the arterial vessels

11

In ppl with known CAD and diabetes what is the primary goal level of LDLs

Less than 70

12

What is the HDL normal range in men

35-70

13

What is the normal range of HDL for woman

35-85

14

Wha does HDL do

Transport cholesterol away from tissues and cells of the arterial wall to the liver for excretion

15

In pt with CAD what is the secondary level of HDLs

More than 40

16

What is the normal range for triglycerides

100 to 200
They are composed of three fatty acids and glycerol. Are stored in the adipose tissue and as a source of energy

17

Triglyceride levels are affected by what

They increase after meals and are affected by stress
Diabetes alcohol use and obesity can increase levels

18

What is BNP

Brain B type natriuretic peptide which helps regulate BP and fluid volume
It is primarily excreted from the ventricles in response to increased preload with resulting elevated ventricular pressure

19

The levels of BNP,in the blood increase as a result of,what

As the ventricular walls expand from increased pressure making it a helpful tool in diagnosing HF

20

What other conditions can elevated BNP levels result from

PE
MI
Ventricular hypertropthy

21

What is CRP

c reactive protein
It is a protein produced in the liver in response to systemic inflammation.

22

Ppl with high he CRP levels of 3 mg/ml or,higher are at risk for what

CVD

23

Homocysteine

An amino acid linked to the development of atherosclerosis because it can damage the lining of the endothelium lining of arteries and promote thrombus formation

24

An elevated level of what is linked to the development of what

CAD
STROKE
PVD

25

What are assoc with higher levels of homocysteine

Genetic factors
Diet low in folate, vit B12

26

How long must a pt fast before receiving a accurate serum measurement

12hour fasting

27

What are the test results for a homocysteine

Less than 12 optimal
12-15 borderline
Greater than 15 high risk

28

What is a chest X-ray useful for

To determine the size, contour, and position of the heart
It reveals cardiac calcification sand demonstrates physiologic changes in pulmonary circulation
Correct placement of pacemakers and pulmonary catheters are also confirmed

29

Fluoroscopy

An x Ray imaging technique that allows visualization of the heart on screen it shows cardiac and vascular pulsations and unusual cardiac contours it uses a movable X-ray source

30

What is a lead

A specific view of the electrical activity of the heart

31

The standard lead is composed of what

12 lead or 12 different views of the heart

32

BUN

10-20
Are end products of protein metabolism excreted by the kidneys
Elevated bun reflects reduced renal perfusion from decreased cardiac output or intravascular FVD

33

Ca

8.6- 10.2
Necessary for blood coagulability, neuromuscular activity, and automaticity of the nodal cells ( sinus and atrioventricular nodes)

34

What might a elevated BUN and normal creatinine indicate

Intravascular FVD

35

PTT

60-70s

36

Therapist of range for INR

2-3.5

37

Normal range of platelets

150,000- 450,000

38

HCT

Men. 42-52%
Woman. 35-47%
Represents the percentage of of RBC found in 100ml of whole blood

39

Low hbg and HCT levels indicate what

They have serious consequences for ppl with cardiovascular diseases, such as more frequent angina episodes or acute myocardial infarction

40

What meds inhibit platelet function

Aspirin, clopidogrel ( plavix), and intravenous glycoproteins IIb/ IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. Whe these meds are administered it is essential to monitor for Thrombocytopenia ( low platelet counts)

41

The CBC is carefully monitored in who

Ppl with cardiovascular disease

42

What is used to monitor the levels of anticoagulation with warfarin

PT

43

A 5 lead system provides how many different lead selections

7 unlike telemetry and hardwire cardic monitoring the 5 lead can monitor the activity of the anterior wall of the left ventricle