Pneumonia Ch 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pneumonia Ch 23 Deck (14):

Acute tracheobronchitis

An acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the trachea and the bronchial tree, often follows infection of the upper respiratory tract.

Adequate treatment of the upper respiratory system is am one of,the major factors in the prevention of acute bronchitis.


In acute treachebronchitis, the inflamed mucous of the bronchi produces mucopurelent sputum often in response to infection by streptococcus pneumoniae, haemphophilus influenza or mycoplasma pneumoniae. A fungal infection may also cause acute tracheobronchitis
Inhalation of pollutants can also cause this.

The pathophysiology of acute tracheobronchitis


What are the clinical manifestations of acute tracheobronchitis

Initially the pt has a dry irritating cough and expectorates a small amount of mucous sputum. The pt may report eternal soreness from coughing and have fever or chills, night sweats, headache, and general malaise. As the infection progresses the pt may be SOB, have. Oily inspiration and expiration ( inspiratory stridor, expiratory wheeze) and produce purple not sputum. In severe cases blood streaked secretions may be expectorated as a result of the irritation of the mucous a of the airways.


What class of meds are usually not administered in the treatment of acute tracheobronchitis

Antihistamines because they can cause excessive drying and make secretions more difficult to expectorate


What is pneumonia

Pneumonia is a inflammation of the lung parychema caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses


What 4 classes can pneumonia be classified into

CAP, community acquired pneumonia
HCAP, health care assoc pneumonia
HAP, hospital acquired pneumonia
VAP, ventilator assoc pneumonia



Community acquired pneumonia occurring in the community or less than 48 hours of hosp admission



Health care assoc pneumonia occurring in a non hospitalized pt with extensive health care contact with one or more of the following;
1. Hospitalized for more than 2 days within 90 days of infection
2. Reside in a nursing home or LTC facility
3.antibiotic therapy within 30 days of current infection
4. Hemodialysis tx at a hosp or clinic
5. Home infusion therapy or wound care therapy
6. Family member with infection due to MDRO



Hospital acquired pneumonia occurring more than 48 hours after hosp admission that did not appear to be incubating at the time of admission


Pneumonia in the immunocompromised host occurs when what

Occurs with the use of corticocosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapy, nutritional depletion,the use of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents, AIDS, genetic immune disorders,and mechanical ventilation.


Aspiration pneumonia

refers to the pulmonary consequences resulting from entry of endogenous or exogenous substances into the lower airway.


What does pneumonia affect

Ventilation and diffusion



Term used to describe pneumonia that is distributed in a patchy fashion, having originated in one or. Ore localized areas within the bronchi and extending the adjacent surrounding lung parenchyma . Bronchopneumonia is more common than lobar pneumonia


what types of pt's does pneumonia occur in

HF, diabetes, alcoholism, COPD, AIDS.