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Flashcards in Med Surg Final Deck (75):
1

Macular degeneration

Often called age related macular degeneration ( AMD)
Is the central loss of vision that affects the macula of the eye.
It has no cure
It is the #1 cause of vision loss in ppl over 60
Yellow spots will appear in the field of vision

2

Two types of macular degeneration are.....

Dry macular - which is the most common
It is caused by a gradual blockage in the retinal capillary arteries, which results in the macula becoming ischemic and necrotic due to lack of retinal cells.
Wet macular - which is less common
It is caused by new growth of blood vessels that have thin walls and allow blood flow and fluid to leak from them

3

What are risk factors for dry macular degeneration

Smokers, family history, HTN, female, short body stature, diet lacking carotene and Vitamin A

4

What age can wet macular degeneration occur

It can occur at any age

5

reg u-100 is used for what

It is used as an insulin drip, do not use u-500 it would be too much

6

If a person has sugar in the urine, how will their urine appear

It will appear diluted

7

What are macro vascular complications

Stroke

8

How much sodium should a person consume

Less than 2gm a day

9

What is nitroglycerin used for

Angina

10

What is used to determine left ventricular hypertropthy

Echo

11

If a person of suffering from PVD, how should they position their limbs

Elevate extremities

12

What is PAD caused by

Atherosclerosis

13

What are signs and symptoms of PAD

Intermittent claudication

14

For PAD how should the limbs be positioned

Keep limbs dependent
Avoid crossing legs
Smoking promotes vascular constriction

15

What are MEDS for PAD and PVD

Anti platelets ( aspirin, plavix, clopidogrel,heparin, lovenox)

16

Someone who suffers from Varicose veins is at high risk for what

PVD

17

WHAT IS COPD

Combination of bronchitis, and emphysema
Is results in inadequate ventilation problems and alveoli are hyperextended

18

A person suffering from COPD is at higher risk for developing what gas exchange problem

Respiratory acidosis because of expiratory problems

19

What lab might indicate COPD

Increased HCT levels due to lack of oxygen as a compensatory measure
Sputum cultures in the am
ABGs

20

For a person suffering from COPD exasperation what would the nurse expect to be administered

IV fluids
Albuterol
Bronchodilators/Symbicort

21

What is the max amt of oxygen supplementation that can be given to a COPD client

No more than 3L should be administered they have adjusted to the decreased oxygen level

22

What is a drug that can help treat COPD

Corticocosteroids

23

What are Meds used to treat pneumonia

Antibiotics
Hydration
Probiotics
Mucinex
Expectorants
Obtain a sputum culture

24

What is peptic ulcer disease

It is erosion of the mucous membranes
Peptic ulcers are more likely to occur in the duodenum
They are caused by the bacteria H-pylori

25

What are signs and symptoms of PUD

Dull gnawing pain
Heartburn
Constipation
Diarrhea

26

What are meds used to treat PUD

Flagyl
Amoxicillin
PPIs
Bis though salts ( Pepto bismol)
Eat less acidic foods and avoid aspirin

27

What are complications of PUD

Hemmorhage
Severe abdominal pain
Radiating pain that may go to shoulder, peritonitis can develop within a few hours with perforation, the abdomen will appear board like

28

What is systemic lupus

It is an autoimmune disease more prone in woman
It affects all body organs.
The butterfly rash across the bridge of the nose is the ,out common feature. Anorexia, malaise, and wt. loss can occur.

29

What are risk factors for systemic lupus

Oral contraceptives
Hormone replacement therapy after menopause

30

For drug induced SLE, what med should be administered

Procainamide

31

What classes of drugs can increase diverticulosis

Steroids
Opiods
NSAIDS

32

What are a few treatments of diverticulosis

Consume broccoli, beans, eat foods high in fiber, Metamucil

33

What labs indicate diverticulosis

Elevated ESR

34

For acute diverticulosis what should NOT be administered

DO NOT ADMINISTER A BARIUM ENEMA

35

What labs indicate perforation

Elevated ESR

36

for Crohn's where would the person report pain

RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT

37

For ulcerative colitis, where would the pt report pain

They would report pain in the left lower quadrant

38

For a person diagnosed with Crohns, how will the bowel appear

It will look fatty ( steatorrhea)

39

Are smokers at greater risk of developing ulcerative colitis

Non smokes typically develop ulcerative colitis, while smokers tend to develop Crohn's

40

What are signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis

Mucus, pus rectal bleeding, rebound tenderness

41

What labs indicate IBD ( crohns, ulcerative colitis)

H&H will be decreased

ESR will be increased
WBC will be increased
CRP will be increased

42

What are meds to treat IBD

Sulfonamides
Corticocosteroids
Antidiarrheals
Immunomodulators
Anticholinergics

43

What are surgical procedure to treat ulcerative colitis

Colectomy- illeostomy

44

What are surgical procedure to treat Crohn's disease

Structuroplasty
Repair of fistulas

45

What is BPH

Enlargement of prostate gland- constricts urethra causing decreased output of urine
It may occur if a person drinks alcohol, smokes, has elevated levels of testerone, and estrogen.
I typically occurs in men after age 40

46

What are findings of BPH

Blood in urine
Enlargement of prostate can be indicative of prostate cancer
Check PSA levels

47

What are tests for BPH

TURP
3 way catheter (COUDE)

48

What is MS

Development of plaque
No known cure
No known cause
Remission of relapses

49

What are signs and symptoms of MS

Weakness, vision changes, urinary retention,

50

What are meds for MS

Immunosuppressants
Corticocosteroids
Immunomodulators ( decrease the body's response to infection)

51

What ais e signs and symptoms of RA

Joint stiffness
Inability to move

52

What are complications of RA

RA nodules

53

What are meds used to treat RA

NSAIDS
Immunosuppressants

54

What meds can cause hearing loss

Aminoglycosides ( gentamicin)
Tylenol can cause hearing loss

55

What are cataracts

It is an opacity in the lens of an eye causing visual impairment.
The vision is cloudy

56

What are the 3 types of cataracts

Subcapsular- begins at the back of the lens
Nuclear- forms in the center nucleus of eye
Cortical- forms in the lens cortex and extends from outside of the lens to the center

57

Can cataracts be fixed

By surgical intervention, it can be fixed

58

What med can be used to treat glaucoma

Timolol

59

Glaucoma results from what

Increased intraocular pressure resulting in vision impairments

60

Osteoporosis results from what deficiencies

Lack of calcium and vitamin D
It usually occurs at the onset of menopause
It eventually results in total bone loss

61

What meds can be used for osteoporosis

Take bi phosphates
Actonel
Boniva ( monthly)

62

Does Parkinson's generally affect more males or females

It affects more males

63

What 2 meds are given concurrently to treat Parkinson's

Levodopa and carbidopa

64

What is true of Parkinson's disease

Resistive movements, shuffling gait, jerking of foot
GI-slows down resulting in constipation
Dysphagia- prevent aspiration by providing thickened liquids, purée food.
Dysarthria- difficulty speaking/ strength training facial muscles

65

DJD

Degenerative joint disease- destruction of cartilage ( continous) after cartilage destruction, it moves onto bone.

66

Can a person undo damage to there joints

You really can't undo damage to your joints. Supplements ca help, there more like a placebo effect because the joints are already destroyed. NSAIDS can relieve pain but there is no cure. Only pain management

67

What are diagnostics for OA

Bone scans, check for bone spurts

68

What population is OA typically seen in

Athletes

69

What is osteoporosis

Affects more woman than men especially postmenopausal
There are 2 major groups
1. Primary- hormonal changes
2. Secondary- 2nd to other diseases

70

What decreases in addition to estrogen and testosterone

So does bone metabolism

71

What are signs and symptoms of osteoporosis

Bone pain
Weakness
Fractures

72

What is treatment of osteoporosis

Glucocorticoids- meds can prevent osteoclasts from absorbing the bone ( Fosamax) is given once per week.
Consume Foods high in calcium

73

What is a external fixator

A external metal frame attached to bone fragments to stabilize them.

74

What is emphysema

It is characterized by the loss of lung elasticity and hyperinflation of lung tissue

75

Who is not eligible for a bone densiometry test

Preg woman
Metal plates
Claustrophobia