Ch 9 Brain Tumors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9 Brain Tumors Deck (36):
1

What are the types of brain tumors

Malignant gliomas ( neuralgial cells)
Benign meningiomas ( meninges)
Pituitary adenomas
Acoustic neuromas ( acoustic cranial nerve)

2

What are supratentorial tumors

Tumors that occur in the cerebral hemispheres above the tectorial cerebelli.

3

What are infratentorial tumors

Tumors that occur below the tentorium cerebelli such as tumors of the brain stem and cerebellum

4

What do brain tumors do

They apply pressure to surrounding brain tissue, resulting in decreased outflow of CSF, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits. Tumors that involve the pituitary gland may cause endocrine dysfunction.

5

What brain tumors are assoc with a high mortality rate

Malignant brain tumors

6

What brain tumors rarely metastasize outside the brain

Primary brain tumors

7

Cranial metastatic lesions most commonly metastasize from where

Breast, kidney, gastrointestinal tract cancers

8

Do benign brain tumors metastasize

They do not metastasize

9

Where do benign brain tumors develop from

Benign brain tumors develop from the meninges or cranial nerves.

10

In what ways do benign brain tumors cause damage

These tumors have distinct boundaries and cause damage either by the pressure they excert within the cranial cavity and or by impairing the function of the cranial nerve

11

Are there routine screening procedures to detect brain tumors

No

12

What are risk factors for brain tumors

Genetics
Environmental agents
Exposure to ionizing radiation
Exposure to electromagnetic fields
Previous head injury

13

What are assessment findings of brain tumors

Dysarthria ( poor articulation of speech)
Dysphagia ( difficulty swallowing)
Positive Romberg sign
Positive babinski sign
Vertigo
Hemiparesis
Cranial nerve dysfunction ( inability to discriminate sounds, loss of gag reflex, loss of blink response

14

What are manifestations specific to supratentorial brain tumors

Severe headaches ( worse upon weakening but improving over time)
Visual changes
Seizures, loss of voluntary movement or the inability to control movement
Change in cognitive function ( memory loss, language impairment)
Change in personality
Nausea with or without vomiting

15

What are manifestations specific to infratentorial brain tumors

Hearing loss or ringing in the ear
Facial drooping
Difficulty swallowing
Nystagmus, crossed eyes or decreased vision
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction
Ataxia or clumsy movements
Hemiparesis
Cranial nerve dysfunction ( inability to discriminate sounds, loss of gag reflex, loss of blink response.

16

What meds are used to treat headaches as a result of brain tumors

Non opioid analgesics
Opioid medications are avoided because they tend to decrease the clients level of consciousness

17

What meds are used to reduce cerebral edema related to brain tumors

Corticosteroid meds quickly reduce cerebral edema and may be repaidly administered to maximize effectiveness
Chronic administration is used to control cerebral edema assoc with the presence or treatment of benign or malignant brain tumors.

18

What meds are used to control or prevent seizure disorders in brain tumors

Anticonvulsant medications ..... There are several anti epileptic meds used to treat specific seizure disorders

19

H2 antagonist medications are used to treat what

Are used to decrease the acid content of the stomach reducing the risk of stress ulcers

20

When are H2 receptor antagonists typically administered

During acute or stressful periods, such as after surgery, at the initiation of chemotherapy, or during the first several radiation therapy treatments..... The impact of these treatments, together with the necessity of corticosteroids places the client at risk for stress ulcers

21

Why may nausea with or without visiting be present in brain tumors

It may be present as a result of the increased intracranial pressure, the site of the tumor or the treatment required

22

Craniotomy

Complete or partial resection of brain tumor through surgical opening in the skull

23

What are complications of a brain tumor

SIADH
DIABETES INSIPIDUS

24

What is SIADH

A condition where fluid is retained as a result of an overproduction of vasopressin or anti diuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland. This condition occurs when the hypothalamus has been damaged and can no longer regular enthe release of ADH

25

What is treatment of SIADH

Fluid restriction
Administration of oral demeclocyline and treatment of hyponatremia

26

If SIADH is present, what may the client complain of

Disorientation, headache, and or vomiting

27

If SIADH is severe or left untreated, what may occur

Seizures and or coma

28

What is diabetes insipidus

A condition where large amounts of urine are excreted as a result of deficiency of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland
The condition occurs when the hypothalamus has been damaged and can no longer regulate the release of ADH

29

What is treatment of diabetes insipidus

Massive fluid replacement
Careful attention to laboratory values
Replacement of essential nutrients as indicated

30

A nurse is caring for a client who is having surgery for the removal of an encapsulated acoustic tumor. What potential complications should the nurse monitor for post operatively?

Following a craniotomy, a nurse should monitor for increased intracranial pressure, the development of hydrocephalus, and seizures.

31

What is a use of dexamethosone

It is given to prevent cerebral edema

32

What is ondansetron administered for

Manage nausea

33

What is phenytoin administered for

Prevention of seizures

34

Wha are some expected findings of increased intracranial pressure

Disoriented to time and place
Restlessness and irritability
Unequal pupils
Headache

35

A nurse is reviewing a prescription for dexamethosone ( Decadron) for a patient who has an expanding brain tumor. What are appropriate statements by the nurse to make?

It is given to reduce swelling of the brain
You may notice weight gain
It can cause you to retain fluids.

36

A nurse is caring for a client who has a benign brain tumor. The client asks the nurse If he can expect this same type of tumor to occur in other areas of his body. What is an appropriate statement by the nurse

It is limited to brain tissue.