Flashcards in Exam 5 Deck (67):
What is HYPOVOLEMIA
FVD or HYPOVOLEMIA occurs when loss of ECF volume exceeds the intake of fluid.
What is a lab test useful in determining a persons fluid volume status
BUN and its relation to serum creatine concentration.
A volume depleted person has a BUN elevated out of proportion to serum creatine. Ratio 20:1
The HCT level is also greater than normal because there is a decreased plasma volume.
Urine specific gravity is increased in relation to the kidneys attempt to conserve water
Why can a BUN be elevated
It can be elevated because of dehydration or decreased renal perfusion and function
When does hypokalemia occur
HYPOKALEMIA occurs with GI & renal losses
Hyperkalemia results from what
When does hyponatremia occur
It occurs with increased thirst and ADH release.
What does hypernatremia result from
Hypernatremia results from increased insensible losses and diabetes insipidus
When is urine specific gravity decreased
With diabetes insipidus
What is secreted when fluid volume is low
Aldosterone is secreted when fluid volume is low causing reabsorption of sodium and chloride.
Urine osmolality can be greater than 450 because the kidneys try to compensate by conserving water.
For a person with fluid volume deficit,what type of fluids will be administered
Isotonic electrolyte solutions ( lactate ringers, 0.9% sodium chloride)
Are 1st line of choice to treat the hypotensive person with FVD because they expand plasma volume.
As soon as the person becomes normotensive, a hypotonic solution ( 0.45% sodium chloride) is often used to provide both electrolytes and water for renal excretion of metabolic wastes.
What assessments should be done to determine when therapy should be slowed to avoid fluid volume overload.
Accurate and frequent assessments of I&O, weight, vital signs, central venous pressure,LOC,breath sounds and skin color
What are contributing factors to fluid volume deficit
Loss of water and electrolytes from vomiting, diarrhea, fistulas, excessive sweating,burns, blood loss, GI suction, 3rd space fluid shifts, decreased intake
Uncontrolled Diabetes and diabetes insipidus both contribute to depletion of extra cellular fluid volume.
What are signs symptoms and of a person with FVD
Acute weight loss, decreased skin turgor, oliguria, concentrated urine, capillary filling prolonged, low CVP, low BP, flattened neck veins, dizziness, weakness, thirst and confusion. Increased pulse, muscle cramps,sunken eyes, nausea, increased temp,cool clammy pale skin.
What lab values are indicative of FVD
Increased HGB, HCT
increased serum and osmolality and specific gravity
Increased BUN and creatine
Decreased urine sodium
What are contributing factors of fluid volume excess
Compromised regulatory mechanisms such as renal failure heart failure and cirrhosis
Overzealous administration of sodium containing fluids
Fluid shifts in other words treatment of burns
Prolonged corticosteroid therapy severe stress and hyper aldosteronism augment fluid volume excess
What are signs and symptoms of hypervolemia
Acute weight gain peripheral Edema and ascites
Distended jugular vein crackles elevated CVP shortness of breath and increased blood pressure bounding pulses and cough increased respiratory rate increase urine output
What lab values are in the indicative of hypervolemia
Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit
Decreased serum and urine osmolality
Decreased urine sodium and specific gravity
What are contributing factors of sodium deficit
(Hyponatremia levels less than 135)
Loss of sodium as the use of the Diuretics,loss of G I fluids renal disease adrenal insufficiency gain of water as an excess of the ministration of D5W and water supplements for patients receiving hypotonic tube feedings
Disease states associated with SIADH such as head trauma and oat cell lung tumor.
Meds associated with water retention such as oxytocin and certain tranquilizers and psychogenic polydipsia
Hyperglycemia and heart failure can cause a loss of sodium
What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia
Anorexia,nausea,and vomiting,headache lethargy,dizziness,confusion muscle cramps,weakness,muscular twitching,seizures,papilledema Dry skin, increased pulse,decreased blood pressure, weight gain,edema
What labs are indicative of hyponatremia
Decreased serum and urine sodium,
decreased urine specific gravity and osmolality
What are contributing factors to hypernatremia
Water deprivation inpatients unable to drink
Hypertonic two feedings without adequate water supplements
diabetes insipidus,heatstroke,hyperventilation,watery diarrhea,burns and diaphoresis
Excess corticosteroids sodium by carbonate and sodium chloride administration saltwater in near drowning victims
What are signs and symptoms of hypernatremia
Levels greater than 145
Thirst elevated body temperature swollen dry tongue sticky mucous membranes hallucinations lethargy restlessness irritability simple partial or tonic clonic seizures pulmonary edema hyperreflexia twitching nausea vomiting and anorexia increased pulse and blood pressure
What are contributing factors of hypokalemia
Levels less than 3.5
Diarrhea,vomiting,gastric suctioning,corticosteroid administration hyperaldosteronism,carbenicillin,amphotericin B, bulimia,osmotic diuresis,alkalosis,starvation,diuretics and digoxin and toxicity
What are contributing factors of hyperkalemia
Pseudo hyperkalemia,oliguric renal failure,use of potassium sparing diuretics,metabolic acidosis,Addison's disease,crush injury, burns,stored bank blood transfusions,rapid the administration of potassium,medications such as ACE INHIBITORS, NSAIDS, CYCLOSPORINE
What are signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia
Muscle weakness, tachycardia, bradycardia, dysrhythmias, flaccid paralysis, paresthesia, intestinal colic, cramps, abdominal distention,irritability, anxiety prolonged PR interval and QRS duration absent P waves, ST depression
What are calcium levels
What are contributing factors of hypocalcemia levels less than 8.5
Hi both parathyroidism (May follow thyroid surgery or radical neck dissection) malabsorption, pancreatitis, alkalosis, vitamin D deficiency, massivesubcutaneous infection, generalized Peritonitis, massive transfusion of citrated blood, chronic diarrhea, diuretic phase of renal failure, fistula, Burns and alcoholism
What are contributing factors of hypercalcemia
Hyper parathyroidism, malignant neoplastic disease, prolonged immobilization, overuse of calcium supplements, vitamin D excess,oliguric phase of renal failure, acidosis, corticosteroid therapy, fire is not diuretic use, digoxin toxicity
What are signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia
Muscular weakness,constipation, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, polyuria and polydipsia, dehydration, hypoactive deep tendon reflexes,Lethargy, deep bone pain, pathologic fractures, flank pain, calcium stones, hypertension
What are signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia
Numbness,tingling in the fingers and toes, positive Trousseau's sign and chvostek's signs,seizures, carpopedal spasms, hyper active deep tendon reflexes irritability, bronchospasm, anxiety,impair clotting time, decreased prothrombin, diarrhea, decreased BP
What will a ECG show for a person with hypocalcemia
Prolonged QT interval are in length and ST
What labs indicate hypocalcemia
What are safe ranges of magnesium
What are contributing factors to magnesium deficit
Chronic alcoholism, hyperparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, diuretic phase of renal failure, malabsorption since disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, Refeeding after starvation, parenteral nutrition, chronic laxative use, diarrhea, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, decreased potassium and calcium
What are signs and symptoms of a magnesium deficit
Neuromuscular irritability,positive Trousseau's sign, and chvostek's sign,insomnia, mood changes, anorexia, vomiting, increased tendon reflexes, and increased blood pressure
What will a ECG show of a person with a magnesium deficit
PCVs, flat or innervated T waves, depressed QT SEGMENT, PROLONGED PR IMTERVAL, AMD WIDENED QRS
What are contributing factors of hypermagnesemia
Oliguric phase of renal failure particularly when magnesium containing meds are Administered
Excess magnesium administration, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hypo thyroidism.
What are signs and symptoms of excess magnesium
Flushing, hypotension, muscle weakness, drowsiness, hypo active reflexes, depressed respirations, cardiac arrest and coma, diaphoresis
Prolonged PR IMTERVAL and QRS, peaked T WAVES
What are phosphorus levels
What are contributing factors of hypophosphatemia
Re feeding after starvation
Alcohol withdrawal, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory and metabolic alkalosis, Decreased magnesium and potassium, hyper parathyroidism, vomiting,diarrhea, hyperventilation,vitamin D deficiency assoc with malabsorption disorders,mourns, acid base disorders,parenteral nutrition,and diuretic and antacid use.
What are signs and symptoms of hyperphophatemia
Tetany, tachycardia, anorexia, nausea and vomiting,muscle weakness, signs of symptoms of hypocalcemia, hyperactive reflexes,soft tissue calcifications In lungs,heart, kidneys and cornea.
What are signs and symptoms of hypophosphatemia
Paresthesias, muscle weakness, bone pain, tenderness, chest pain, confusion, cardiomyopathy, respiratory failure,seizures, tissue hypoxia, increased susceptibility to infection, nystagmus.
What are contributing factors of phosphorus excess
Acute and chronic renal failure
Excess intake of phosphorus, vitamin D Excess
Respiratory and metabolic acidosis
Loop, osmotic or thiazide diuretic use.
Overuse of bicarbonate
Rapid removal of ascetic fluid with a high sodium content
IV fluids that lack chloride ( dextrose and water)
Draining fistulas and ostomies,HF, cystic fibrosis
What are chloride levels
What are contributing factors of excess chloride
Excessive chloride infusions with water loss, head injury ( sodium retention), hypernatremia, renal failure, corticosteroid use, dehydration, sever diarrhea ( loss of bicarbonate) respiratory alkalosis,diuretics, overuse of salicylates, kayexalate, acetazolamide,phenylbutazone, and ammonium chloride use, hyper parathyroidism, and metabolic acidosis.
What are signs and symptoms of excess chloride
Tachypnea, lethargy, weakness, deep rapid respirations, decline in cognitive status, decreased cardiac output, dyspnea, tachycardia,pitting edema, dysrhythmias, coma
What lab values are indicative of excess chloride
Increased serum chloride,potassium and sodium
Decreased serum bicarbonate, normal anion gap, increased urinary chloride level.
What is treatment of HYPOVOLEMIA
Isotonic fluids such as normal saline.
Give salt if they do not have HF, in which salt would be contraindicated.
For fluid depletion what fluids will you give
For cellular dehydration what will u give
Lactated ringers, normal saline
There is no change in osmolality, it increases circulating volume
Increases thirst sensation and retains fluids
As they name states ( ANTIDIURETIC) it retains fluid, urine output will be low and concentrated.
For cellular dehydration which occurs secondary to dehydration, what type,of fluids will be ordered
Hypotonic solutions it draws fluids back into the cells.
What do hypertonic solutions do
Draws fluids back out of the cell.
What is a hypertonic solution
For a person experiencing fluid loss what fluids will they be given
Start with NS or Lactated ringers
Do not use d5 1/2 which will push fluid into the cells.
What does D5 1/2 do
Push fluid in the cell.
What vital signs indicate FVD
Decreased BP, increased HR
The Herat is pumping more to circulate blood thru the body.
What happens in Addison's disease
Looses salt, the person must seek salt replenishment
What organ can contribute to fluid volume excess
Renal impairment can contribute to fluid volume excess due inability to excrete fluids
Removes fluids when diuretics are no longer working ( CHF)
What normal potassium levels
Above 7 can cause dysrhythmias
Above 8 can cause cardiac arrest
When would you not replace a persons potassium
If the person is in end stage renal disease, it will accumulate leading to hyperkalemia
What 2 electrolytes go together
Phosphorus bonds with calcium
What is therapy for HYPERCALCEMIA
Calcitonin spray ( test for allergies because it is derived from a fish
Alternate nostril each day.
For hypocalcemia, what would be a supplement
Vit D Supplementation