Med Surg: Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

Med Surg Test 2: Oncology > Med Surg: Chemotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Med Surg: Chemotherapy Deck (16)
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1

What is systemic therapy?

Drug used to destroy cells throughout the body

Destroys normal cells too

Used for cnacer that have metastasized

Damage DNA or DNA synthesis or cell division

2

What is the chemotherapy cell cycle?

Cell Cycle:

works in one or multiple phases

not effective in G0 (resting phase)

chemo works best with large numbers of actively dividing cells

 

Cell cycle non-specific:

functions ithout regard to the cell cycle, destroys all of them

 

3

What is the cell kill hypothesis?

A fraction of cells are destroyed with each round of chemotherapy until total destruction is reached

Gives the basis for repeated doses over time or the "Course" of therapy

4

What are the principles of chemotherapy?

Combination therapy: multiple doses of chemo, based on protocols by type of cancer, metastais, pt health

Tumore Burden: low (small & fast growth)

Adjuvant therapy: multiple types of therapy

Problems" mucous membranes, bone marrow, hair

Benefits must outweight the toxic effects: teach patients and inform them that they have been improced and that certain cancers are treated better

5

What is NADIR?

Time of maxiumum effect on bone marrow activity (usually 10-14 days)

Major dose limiting side effect

May need intervention such as colony stimulating factor

6

What is tumor responsiveness?

Some types of tumore are not as responsive to drug therapy

Brain has BBB

Liver detoxes before get there

7

How is the types of chemo selected?

based on tumor sensitivity

 

8

What are the goals of chemo?

Cure

Control (remission): keep small, not divide

Palliation (comfort care): minimize side effects, not usually used this way

9

What are the routes of admission?

Oral: horomones, to stop growth, compliance is an issue, take at home

IV: most frequent, need good access, may have tissue damange

Intra-arterial: liver & billiary, need to bypass venous system

Intra-cavity: implant

Topical

10

What are the classifications of Antineoplastics?

Alkylating agents: oldest, nitrogen mustard, bad side effects, cross-linking in DNA

Antimetabolites: trick body to think they are metabolites, halts division

Antitumor Antiobiotics: developed from antibiotics, non-phase specific, bind and damage DNA, block transcription, prevent division, normally paired with other drugs

Plant Alyloids: phase specific, derived from plants, cause crystalizing in spindles so spindles cant divide

Topoisomerase inhibitors: subtype of plant alkyloid

11

What are Hormones in classifiation of antineoplastics?

Tumore must be horomone dependent for this to work. 

Can work by manipulating the environment by preventing uptake, competing and inhibiting

12

What is the biological response modifier in classification of antineoplastics?

Not curative, supportive

Modifies biological response to tumor cells

Boosts persons immune system by improving recognition, supporting immune system, providing protection from side effects

13

What is gene therapy in the classification of antineoplastics?

Mostly experimental

Helps to alter tumore cell to make it easier to destroy

bood immune system recognition and activity

Targeted therapy: combination of biological and gene therapy, monoclonial antibodies (problem with allergic reaction), antisenses drugs

14

What is the potential for tissue damage?

Prevention

Vesicants

Irritants

Credentialed Meds

15

What are possible side effects and management?

Myelosuppression: effect on bone marrow, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

Stomatitis (mouth), Mucositis (mucous membrane), Esophogitis

Anorexia

N/V

Taste alterations

Constipation/diarrhea

Fatigue

Alopecia

Cutanous reactions

Sexual alterations

16

What are oncological emergencies?

Sepsis and septic shock

DIC

SIADH

Spinal cord compression

Hypercalcemia

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

TUmor Lysis Syndrome