What is oncologic nursing?
Major physiologic, psychologic and social impact on the individual, caregivers and families.
Nursing needs to educate individuals to understand, reduce and eliminate their cancer risk, comply with cancer management regimens and cope with effects of cancer and related treatment.
What are factors the influence cancer development?
Chemical: smoking, industrial, meds
Radiation: gas, sun, radium, uranium, cosmic rays
Viral: Hep B&C, HPV, Helicobactor pylori, Epstein Barr Virus, AIDS
What are features of cancer cells?
Rapid or continuous cell division: no controlling mechanism
Anaplasia: dont look like parent cells
Large nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ration
Loose adherence: no useful purpose
Migration: look adherance, easy move things
No contact inhibition
What is cancer development?
Carcinogenesis/oncogenesis are names for cancer development
Malignant transformation occurs through these steps:
Initiation: beginning, exposure to cell mutation
Promotion: continue to grow and stimulate body
Progression: blood supply, cells change
Metastasis: break off to other sites
What are the steps of metastasis progression?
Extension into surrounding tissues
Blood vessel penetration
Release of tumor cells
What are the classifications of cancer?
Extent of disease
What are the reasons to classify cancer?
Communicate status of cencer to healthcare team
Assist in determining most effective treatment plan
Evaluate the treatement plan
Compare like groups for statistical purpose
What are examples of where cancer spreads?
Breast: bone (vasuclar), lung
Prostate: bone (spine and legs)
What are the cancer classifications (anatomic site)?
Connective, muscle and bone: sarcoma
Brain and spinal cord: glioma
Pigment cells: melanoma
Plasma cels: myeloma
Lymphatic tissue: lymphoma
What are ways to detect and prevent cancer?
Prevention: avoidance of known or potential carcinogens, lifestyle changes
Detection: mammogram, pap test, stools for occult blood, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, BSE, TSE, skin inspection
What are seven warning signs of cancer?
C: change in bowel or bladder habits
A: a sore that does not heal
U: unusual bleeding or discharge from any body orifice
T: thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
I: indigestion or diffficulty in swallowing
O: obvious change in a wart or mole
N: nagging cough or hoarseness