Med Term 2 Flashcards Preview

TCM > Med Term 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Med Term 2 Deck (644):
1

ptyal/o

saliva

2

-emesis

vomiting

3

-phagia

swallowing, eating

4

enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

5

proct/o

anus, rectum

6

cholangi/o

bile vessel

7

chol/e

bile, gall

8

cholecyst/o

gallbadder

9

choledoch/o

bile duct

10

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

11

-osis

abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

12

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

13

RGB

roux-en-Y gastric bypass

14

ascites

abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

15

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease characterized by destruction of liver cells that eventually leads to ineffective liver function and jaundice

16

diverticular disease

condition in which bulging pouches (diverticula) in the GI tract push the mucosal lining through the surrounding muscle

17

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, which may be caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa or parasites

18

fistula

abnormal passage from one organ to another, or from a hollow organ to the surface

19

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

20

GERD full def

backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of the lower esophageal spincter

21

heratochezia

passage of stools containing bright red blood

22

hernia

protrusion or porjection of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it

23

Crohn disease

form of IBD that affects the ileum but may affect any portion of the intestinal tract

24

ulcerative eolitis

chronic IBD of the colon characterized by episodes of diarrhea, rectal bleeding and pain

25

jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and sclerae of the eyes caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood

26

obesity

condition in which a person accumulated an amount of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20% or more above ideal body weight

27

polyp

small tumor like benign growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface

28

colonic polyposis

polyps projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon

29

polyposis

polyps develop in the intestinal tract

30

ulcer

open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue

31

volvulus

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction

32

barium enema (BE)

radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after administration of barium sulfate into the rectum

33

barium swallow

radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and SI after oral administration of barium sulfate; also called upper GI series

34

computed tomography (CT)

radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of xrays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross sectional images of that body part

35

endoscopy

visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope

36

upper GI

endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

37

lower GI

endoscopy of colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum/anal canal

38

magnetic resonance imaging MRI

radiographic techique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross sectional images of the body

39

Stool guaiac

test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection

40

ultrasonography US

imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue

41

bariatric surgery

goup of procedures that treat morbid obesity

42

nasogastric intubation

insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach

43

corpor/o

body

44

orth/o

straight

45

polyp/o

small growth

46

-oid

resembling

47

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary tract using a systoscope inserted through the urethra

48

vesic/o

bladder

49

vesicocele

hernial protrusion of urinary bladder

50

meatus

opening or tunnel through any part of the body, such as the external opening of the urethra

51

nephr/o

kidney

52

nephroma

tumor of the kidney

53

pyel/o

renal pelvis

54

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of renal pelvis

55

-emia

blood condition

56

-iasis

abnormal condition produced by something specific

57

ARF

Acute Renal Failure

58

BNO

Bladder Neck Obstruction

59

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign prostatic hypertrophy

60

BUN

Blood Urea Nitrogen

61

CRF

Chronic Renal Failure

62

DRE

digital rectal examination

63

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

64

ESWL

Extracoporeal Shock-wave Lithotripsy

65

EU

Excretory Urography

66

IVP

intravenous Pyelogram

67

IVU

Intravenous Urogram

68

KUB

Kidney, ureter, bladder

69

PKD

Polycystic Kidney Disease

70

PSA

Prostate Specific Antigen

71

RP

Retrograde pyelography

72

TURP

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

73

UA

urinalysis

74

VCUG

Voiding Cystourethrogram; voiding cystourethrography

75

azoturia

increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine

76

diuresis

Increased formation and secretion of urine

77

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the KD can no longer adequately filter blood and requires dialysis or transplant. also called CRF chronic renal failure

78

enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established, also called nocturnal enuresis

79

hypospadias

Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis

80

interstitial nephritis

condition associated with pathological changes in the renal intersititial tissue that is due to a toxic agent.

81

Uremia

Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, occurs in renal failure

82

Wilms tumor

Malignant neoplasm of the KD that occurs in young children, before age 5

83

Pyelography

radiographic study of the KD, Ureters and bladder after injection of a contrast agent

84

IVP Intravenous Pyelography

Radiographic imagin in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial xray films are taken to provide visualization of entrie urinary tract

85

renal scan

Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the KD

86

Urinallysis

physical, chemical and microscopic evaluation of urine

87

VCUG Voiding cystourethrography

Radiography of the BL and urethra after filly the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine

88

Catheterization

Insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid.

89

hemodialysis

process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting the blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, then returning the clean blood

90

peritoneal dialysis

Dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane

91

amni/o

amnion (amniotic sac)

92

amniocentesis

surgical puncture of the amniotic sac

93

colp/o

vagina

94

colposcopy

examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument

95

vaginocele

herniation into the vagina

96

gynec/o

woman/female

97

hyster/o

uterus

98

uter/o

uterus

99

GU

Genitourinary

100

TURP, TUR

transurethral resection of the prostate

101

GC

Gonorrhea

102

cadidiasis

vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida ablicans; characterized by a curdy or cheeselike discharge and itching

103

cervicitis

inflammation of the uterine cervix

104

endomentriosis

presence of endomentrial tissue outside the uterine cavity

105

fibroid

benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue

106

leukorrhea

which discharge from the vagina

107

oligomenorrhea

scanty or infrequent menstrual flow

108

PIH pregnancy induced hypertension

potentially life threatening; happens after week 20; edema and protein uria

109

pyosalpinx

pus in the fallopian tube

110

retroversion

turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ being tipped from its normal postion

111

Toxic Shock Syndrom TSS

rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcus infection that generally occurs in menstruating women who use vaginal tampons

112

trichomoniasis

protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra or prostate

113

anorchism

congenital absence of one or both testes

114

balanitis

inflammation of the skin covering the glas penis

115

cryptorchidism

failure of one or both testicles to descent

116

epispadias

congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis

117

hypospadias

Congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on undersurface of the penis

118

impotence

inability of a man to achieve or maintain penile erection

119

phimosis

stenosis or narrowness of the preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back

120

genital warts

warts in the genitalia caused by HPV

121

gonorrhea

contagious bacterial infection that most commonly affects the genitourinary tract and occasionally the pharynx or rectum

122

herpers genitalis

infection in females and males of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes virus type 2

123

syphilis

infections chronic STD characterized by lesions that change to a chancre and may involve any organ or tissue

124

amniocentesis

obstetric procedure that involves surgical puncture of the amniotic sac and under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid

125

hysterosalpingography

radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium

126

laparoscopy

visual exam of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall

127

mammography

radiography of breast

128

papanicolau PAP test

microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vaginal to detect the presence of cancer

129

Digital rectal examination DRE

examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum

130

Prostate specific antigen PSA test

blood test to screen for prostate cancer

131

cerclage

obstertic procedure in which a nonabsorbably sutrue is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneious abortion

132

dilation and curettage D&C

surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped

133

hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy

surgical removal of a uterus, a fallopian tube and a ovary

134

lumpectomy

excision of a small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue around it

135

pituitar/o

pituitary gland

136

thym/o

thymus gland

137

thyr/o

throid gland

138

-dipsia

thrist

139

-trophy

development/nourishment

140

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

141

ACTH Target Organ

Adrenal Cortex

142

ACTH function

promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, esp cortisol

143

ACTH disorder

hyposecretion is rare
hypersecretion causes Cushing Disease

144

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

145

FSH Target Organ

Ovaries and Testes

146

FSH Function

stimulate egg production/increase estrogen
stimulate sperm prodction

147

FSH Disorder

Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
hypersecretion has no known effects

148

GH

Growth Hormone
Somatotropin

149

GH Target Organ

Bone cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues

150

GH function

stimulates somatic growth

151

GH Disorder

HYPO causes dwarfism
HYPER causes gigantism or acromeagaly

152

LH

luteninizing Hormone

153

LH Target Organ

Ovaries and Testies

154

LH Function

promotes ovulation, stiumlates estrogen and progesterone; in males promotion of testosterone

155

LH Disorders

HYPO failure of sexual maturation
HYPER No known effects

156

Prolactin Organ/function

Breast, promotes lactation

157

Prolactin Disorders

HYPO poor lactation
HYPER galactorhhea

158

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

159

TSH organ

Thyroid gland

160

TSH function

stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone

161

TSH disorder

HYPO cretinism (infants) myxedema (adults)
HYPER Graves Disease

162

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone

163

ADH Target organ

Kidney

164

ADH function

increases water reabsorption

165

Oxytocin Organ and Function

Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions, initiates labor
Breasts-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands

166

Calcitonin

Regulates calcium levels. secreted when calcium levels are high

167

T4 and T3

Thyroxine and triiodothryronine

168

T4 and T3 functions

Increases energy production from all food types
increases rate of protein synthesis

169

Glucocorticoids

Body cells, promote gluconeogenesis, regulate metabolism of carbs, proteins and fats

170

Mineralocorticoids

Kidneys, increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium

171

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

sympathetic nervous system increase metabolic rate and heart rate and raise blood pressure

172

cerebr/o

cerebrum

173

encephal

brain

174

gli/o

glue; neuroglial tissue

175

mening/o

meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

176

meningi/o

meninges

177

myel/o

bone marrow

178

-paresis

partial paralysis

179

-phasia

speech

180

-plegia

paralysis

181

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

182

DM

diabetes mellitus

183

GH

growth hormone

184

HRT

Hormone Replacement threapy

185

CNS

central nervous system

186

LP

lumar puncture

187

CO

cardiac output

188

EEG

electroencephalogram

189

EMG

electromyography

190

AP

Anteroposterior

191

PA

posteroanterior

192

CT

computed tomography

193

Addison Disease

Uncommon chronic disorder caused by deficiency of cortical hormones that results when the adrenal cortex is damaged or atrophied

194

Cushing Syndrome

Cluster of symptoms cause by excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH in the blood

195

diabetes mellitus DM

chronic metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein and fate metabolism due to insufficient production of insulin

196

Type 1 diabetes

ubrupt in onset, failure of pancreas to produce insulin

197

type 2 diabetes

gradual in onset, results from the deficiency in production of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin by the body's cells

198

exophthalmos

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

199

Graves disease

mulitsystem autoimmune disorder that involves growth of the thyroid associated with nypersecretion of thyroxine

200

insulinoma

tumor of the islets of langerhans

201

myxedema

advancded hypothroidism, causing edema and increased blood volume and increased blood pressure

202

obesity

20% or above ideal body weight

203

morbid obesity

BMI of 40 or greater (100+lbs over ideal)

204

panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

205

pheochromocytoma

small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla

206

pituitarism

any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function

207

Alzheimer disease

chronic organic mental disorder that is a progressive form of a presenile dementia caused by atrophy of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain

208

Epilepsy

disorder affecting the CNS that is characterized by recurring seizures

209

huntington Chorea

hereditary nervous disorder caused by the progressive loss of brain cells leading to bizarre involuntary dancelike movements

210

hydrocephalus

cranial enlargement caused by accumlation of fluid within the ventricles of the brain

211

MS multiple sclerosis

progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, hardening, and loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscle symptoms

212

neuroblastoma

malignant tumor composed principally of cells resembling neuroblasts

213

palsy

partial or complete loss of motor function

214

Bell Palsy

facial paralysis on one side of the face because of inflammation of a facial nerve

215

cerebral palsy

bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can be hereditary

216

parkinson disease

progressive, degenerative neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain resposible for controlling movement

217

poliomyelitis

infammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus

218

sciatica

severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve

219

seizure

convulsion or other clinically detectable event caused by sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain

220

spina bifida

congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete colosre of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and menninges may or may not protrude

221

transient ischemic attack

temporary interference with blood supply to the brain lasting fa few minutes to a few hours

222

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

radiographic technique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross sectional images of the body

223

RAIU Radio active Iodine Uptake Test

imagin procedure that measures levels of radioactivity in the thryroid after oral or IV administraion of a radioactive iodine

224

CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid analysis

CSF obtained via lumbar puncture is evaluated for clarity and color, cells and proteins

225

PET

Positron emission tomography

226

PET Positron emission tomography

Radiographic technique combining computer tomography with radio pharmaceuticals that produces a cross sectional image of the body to revel areas where the material is being metabolized vs deficiency of metabolized

227

adrenalectomy

surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands

228

craniotomy

surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain

229

thalamotomy

partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain

230

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

oral administration or injection of synthetic hormones to correct a deficiency in such hormones

231

fasci/o

band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles

232

leiomy/o

smooth muscle

233

-asthenia

weakness, debility

234

-rrhaphy

suture

235

-sarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue

236

Flexion/Extension

bending and extension of a limb

237

abduction/adduction

movement away from and toward body

238

rotation

circular movement around an axis

239

pronation/supination

turning had to a palm down or palm up position

240

dorsifilexion/plantar flexion

bending the foot or toes upward or downward

241

carp/o

carpus (wrist bones)

242

spondyl/o

vertebra

243

stern/o

sternum

244

calcane/o

calcaneum (heel bone)

245

cyst/o

Bladder

246

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary tract using a systoscope inserted through the urethra

247

vesic/o

bladder

248

EU

Excretory Urography

249

IVP

intravenous Pyelogram

250

IVU

Intravenous Urogram

251

PKD

Polycystic Kidney Disease

252

PSA

Prostate Specific Antigen

253

RP

Retrograde pyelography

254

TURP

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

255

UA

urinalysis

256

VCUG

Voiding Cystourethrogram; voiding cystourethrography

257

azoturia

increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine

258

diuresis

Increased formation and secretion of urine

259

dysuria

painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of systitis and other urinary tract conditions

260

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the KD can no longer adequately filter blood and requires dialysis or transplant. also called CRF chronic renal failure

261

enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established, also called nocturnal enuresis

262

hypospadias

Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis

263

interstitial nephritis

condition associated with pathological changes in the renal intersititial tissue that is due to a toxic agent.

264

renal hypertension

HB pressure that results from KD disease

265

Uremia

Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, occurs in renal failure

266

Wilms tumor

Malignant neoplasm of the KD that occurs in young children, before age 5

267

BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen

Laboratory test that measures the amount of urea in the blood and demonstrates the KD ability to filter urea from the blood

268

CT Compute tomography

radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of Xrays that rotates in a full arc to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross section images of that part

269

KUB Kidney, Ureter, Bladder

Radiographic examination to determine the location size shape and malformation of the KUB

270

Pyelography

radiographic study of the KD, Ureters and bladder after injection of a contrast agent

271

IVP Intravenous Pyelography

Radiographic imagin in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial xray films are taken to provide visualization of entrie urinary tract

272

renal scan

Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the KD

273

VCUG Voiding cystourethrography

Radiography of the BL and urethra after filly the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine

274

dialysis

mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste productes

275

hemodialysis

process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting the blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, then returning the clean blood

276

peritoneal dialysis

Dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane

277

amni/o

amnion (amniotic sac)

278

amniocentesis

surgical puncture of the amniotic sac

279

cervicitis

inflammation of cervix uteri

280

colp/o

vagina

281

colposcopy

examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument

282

vagin/o

vagina

283

vaginocele

herniation into the vagina

284

galact/o

milk

285

galactorrhea

discharge or flow of milk

286

lact/o

milk

287

lactogen

production and secretion of milk

288

gynec/o

woman/female

289

hyster/o

uterus

290

uter/o

uterus

291

mamm/o

breast

292

mast/o

breast

293

men/o

menses, menstruation

294

metr/o

uterus; measure

295

endometritis

inflammation of the endomentrium

296

nat/o

birth

297

oophor/o

ovary

298

ovari/o

ovary

299

oophoroma

ovarian tumor

300

ovariorrhexis

rupture of an ovary

301

vulv/o

vulva

302

episi/o

vulva

303

-arche

benginning

304

menarche

initial menstrual period

305

-cyesis

pregnancy

306

-para

to bear (offspring)

307

-tocia

childbirth/labor

308

-version

turning

309

andr/o

male

310

balan/o

glans penis

311

gonad/o

gonads, sex glands

312

gonadotropin

hormone that stimulates the gonads

313

varic/o

dilated vein

314

varicocele

dialated or enlarged vein of the spermatic cord

315

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens; duct

316

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

317

CS C-section

cesarean section

318

D&C

dialation and curettage

319

GYN

gynecology

320

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

321

IUD

intrauterine device

322

IVF

in vitro fertilization

323

LMP

last menstrual period

324

OCPs

oral contraceptive pills

325

Pap

Papanicolaou

326

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

327

PIH

pregnancy induced hypertension

328

TAH

total abdominal hysterectomy

329

TRAM

transverse rectus abdominis muscle

330

TVH

Total Vaginal Hysterectomy

331

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

332

GU

Genitourinary

333

GC

Gonorrhea

334

cadidiasis

vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida ablicans; characterized by a curdy or cheeselike discharge and itching

335

cervicitis

inflammation of the uterine cervix

336

ectopic pregnancy

implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity

337

endomentriosis

presence of endomentrial tissue outside the uterine cavity

338

fibroid

benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue

339

leukorrhea

which discharge from the vagina

340

oligomenorrhea

scanty or infrequent menstrual flow

341

PIH pregnancy induced hypertension

potentially life threatening; happens after week 20; edema and protein uria

342

pyosalpinx

pus in the fallopian tube

343

trichomoniasis

protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra or prostate

344

anorchism

congenital absence of one or both testes

345

balanitis

inflammation of the skin covering the glas penis

346

cryptorchidism

failure of one or both testicles to descent

347

epispadias

congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis

348

hypospadias

Congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on undersurface of the penis

349

phimosis

stenosis or narrowness of the preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back

350

genital warts

warts in the genitalia caused by HPV

351

gonorrhea

contagious bacterial infection that most commonly affects the genitourinary tract and occasionally the pharynx or rectum

352

herpers genitalis

infection in females and males of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes virus type 2

353

syphilis

infections chronic STD characterized by lesions that change to a chancre and may involve any organ or tissue

354

amniocentesis

obstetric procedure that involves surgical puncture of the amniotic sac and under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid

355

hysterosalpingography

radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium

356

laparoscopy

visual exam of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall

357

mammography

radiography of breast

358

papanicolau PAP test

microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vaginal to detect the presence of cancer

359

Digital rectal examination DRE

examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum

360

Prostate specific antigen PSA test

blood test to screen for prostate cancer

361

cerclage

obstertic procedure in which a nonabsorbably sutrue is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneious abortion

362

dilation and curettage D&C

surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped

363

hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy

surgical removal of a uterus, a fallopian tube and a ovary

364

lumpectomy

excision of a small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue around it

365

mastecomy

complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonaly preformed to remove a malignant tumor

366

transurethral resection of the prostate TURP

surgical procedure to relieve obstruction casued by benign prostatic hyperplasia by insertion of a resctoscope into the penis and through the urethra to chip away at prostatic tissue

367

gonadotropin

hormonal preparation used to increase sperm count

368

-dipsia

thrist

369

-trophy

development/nourishment

370

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

371

ACTH Target Organ

Adrenal Cortex

372

ACTH function

promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, esp cortisol

373

ACTH disorder

hyposecretion is rare
hypersecretion causes Cushing Disease

374

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

375

FSH Target Organ

Ovaries and Testes

376

FSH Function

stimulate egg production/increase estrogen
stimulate sperm prodction

377

FSH Disorder

Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
hypersecretion has no known effects

378

GH

Growth Hormone
Somatotropin

379

GH Target Organ

Bone cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues

380

GH function

stimulates somatic growth

381

GH Disorder

HYPO causes dwarfism
HYPER causes gigantism or acromeagaly

382

LH

luteninizing Hormone

383

LH Target Organ

Ovaries and Testies

384

LH Function

promotes ovulation, stiumlates estrogen and progesterone; in males promotion of testosterone

385

LH Disorders

HYPO failure of sexual maturation
HYPER No known effects

386

Prolactin Organ/function

Breast, promotes lactation

387

Prolactin Disorders

HYPO poor lactation
HYPER galactorhhea

388

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

389

TSH organ

Thyroid gland

390

TSH function

stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone

391

TSH disorder

HYPO cretinism (infants) myxedema (adults)
HYPER Graves Disease

392

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone

393

ADH Target organ

Kidney

394

ADH function

increases water reabsorption

395

Oxytocin Organ and Function

Uterus-stimulates uterine contractions, initiates labor
Breasts-promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands

396

Calcitonin

Regulates calcium levels. secreted when calcium levels are high

397

T4 and T3

Thyroxine and triiodothryronine

398

T4 and T3 functions

Increases energy production from all food types
increases rate of protein synthesis

399

Glucocorticoids

Body cells, promote gluconeogenesis, regulate metabolism of carbs, proteins and fats

400

Mineralocorticoids

Kidneys, increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium

401

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

sympathetic nervous system increase metabolic rate and heart rate and raise blood pressure

402

cerebr/o

cerebrum

403

encephal

brain

404

gli/o

glue; neuroglial tissue

405

mening/o

meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

406

meningi/o

meninges

407

myel/o

bone marrow

408

neur/o

nerve

409

-paresis

partial paralysis

410

-phasia

speech

411

-plegia

paralysis

412

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

413

BG

Blood Glucose

414

BS

Blood sugar

415

GH

growth hormone

416

HRT

Hormone Replacement threapy

417

CNS

central nervous system

418

AP

Anteroposterior

419

PA

posteroanterior

420

Addison Disease

Uncommon chronic disorder caused by deficiency of cortical hormones that results when the adrenal cortex is damaged or atrophied

421

Cushing Syndrome

Cluster of symptoms cause by excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH in the blood

422

diabetes mellitus DM

chronic metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein and fate metabolism due to insufficient production of insulin

423

Type 1 diabetes

ubrupt in onset, failure of pancreas to produce insulin

424

type 2 diabetes

gradual in onset, results from the deficiency in production of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin by the body's cells

425

exophthalmos

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

426

Graves disease

mulitsystem autoimmune disorder that involves growth of the thyroid associated with nypersecretion of thyroxine

427

insulinoma

tumor of the islets of langerhans

428

myxedema

advancded hypothroidism, causing edema and increased blood volume and increased blood pressure

429

obesity

20% or above ideal body weight

430

morbid obesity

BMI of 40 or greater (100+lbs over ideal)

431

panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

432

pheochromocytoma

small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla

433

pituitarism

any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function

434

Alzheimer disease

chronic organic mental disorder that is a progressive form of a presenile dementia caused by atrophy of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain

435

Epilepsy

disorder affecting the CNS that is characterized by recurring seizures

436

huntington Chorea

hereditary nervous disorder caused by the progressive loss of brain cells leading to bizarre involuntary dancelike movements

437

hydrocephalus

cranial enlargement caused by accumlation of fluid within the ventricles of the brain

438

MS multiple sclerosis

progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, hardening, and loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscle symptoms

439

neuroblastoma

malignant tumor composed principally of cells resembling neuroblasts

440

palsy

partial or complete loss of motor function

441

Bell Palsy

facial paralysis on one side of the face because of inflammation of a facial nerve

442

cerebral palsy

bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can be hereditary

443

parkinson disease

progressive, degenerative neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain resposible for controlling movement

444

poliomyelitis

infammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus

445

seizure

convulsion or other clinically detectable event caused by sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain

446

spina bifida

congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete colosre of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and menninges may or may not protrude

447

transient ischemic attack

temporary interference with blood supply to the brain lasting fa few minutes to a few hours

448

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

radiographic technique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross sectional images of the body

449

RAIU Radio active Iodine Uptake Test

imagin procedure that measures levels of radioactivity in the thryroid after oral or IV administraion of a radioactive iodine

450

CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid analysis

CSF obtained via lumbar puncture is evaluated for clarity and color, cells and proteins

451

lumbar puncture

insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column at the level of the fourth intervetebral space to withdraw cerebral spinal fluid

452

PET

Positron emission tomography

453

PET Positron emission tomography

Radiographic technique combining computer tomography with radio pharmaceuticals that produces a cross sectional image of the body to revel areas where the material is being metabolized vs deficiency of metabolized

454

adrenalectomy

surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands

455

craniotomy

surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain

456

thalamotomy

partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain

457

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

oral administration or injection of synthetic hormones to correct a deficiency in such hormones

458

fasci/o

band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles

459

fibr/o

fiber

460

leiomy/o

smooth muscle

461

-asthenia

weakness, debility

462

-rrhaphy

suture

463

-sarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue

464

Flexion/Extension

bending and extension of a limb

465

abduction/adduction

movement away from and toward body

466

rotation

circular movement around an axis

467

pronation/supination

turning had to a palm down or palm up position

468

dorsifilexion/plantar flexion

bending the foot or toes upward or downward

469

spondyl/o

vertebra

470

calcane/o

calcaneum (heel bone)

471

patell/o

kneecap/patella

472

radi/o

radiation, xray; radius lower arm bone, thumside)

473

tibi/o

tibia larger bone of lower leg

474

ankyl/o

stiffness, bent crooked

475

arthr/o

joint

476

chondr/o

cartilage

477

lamin/o

lamina

478

myel/o

bone marrow

479

-desis

binding, fixation

480

physis

growth

481

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

482

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrom

483

Orth, Ortho

orthopedics

484

THR

total hip replacement

485

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

486

muscular dystrophy

group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue

487

myasthenia gravis MG

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue

488

sprain

trauma to ta joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament accompanied by pain and disability

489

strain

trauma to a muscle from over use or excessive forcible stretch

490

talipes equinovarus

congenital deformity of the food also called club foot

491

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

492

torticollis

spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck, wryneck

493

CTS carpal tunnel syndrome

pain or numbness resulting from compression of the medial nerve within the carpal tunnel

494

contracture

fibroisis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

495

crepitation

grating sound made by the movement of bone ends rubbing together

496

Ewing Sarcoma

malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long bones or the pelvis

497

gout

hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, characterized by excessive uric acid in the blood and around the joints

498

herniated disk

herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus between two vertebrae

499

osteoporosis

decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures

500

Paget Disease

skeletal disease affecting elderly people that causes chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of long bones

501

RA

chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints

502

subluxation

partial or complete disclocation

503

sequestrum

fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

504

ankylosing spondylitis

chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that firsts affects the spine and characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae

505

kyphosis

increased curvature of the throacic region of the vertebral column, leading to ta humpback posture; also called hunchback

506

lordosis

forward curature of the lumbar region, leads to swayback

507

scoliosis

abnormal sideward curvature of the spine

508

spondylolisthesis

partical forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it

509

arthrocentesis

puncture of a joint space with a needle to remover fluid

510

rheunmatoid factor

blood test to detect the presence of the rheumatiod factor

511

arthroplasty

surgical reconstruction of a painful degenerated joint to restore movement

512

blephar/o

eyelid

513

conjuctive/o

conjuctiva

514

choroid/o

choroid

515

corne/o

cornea

516

cor/o

pupil

517

core/o

pupil

518

pupill/o

pupil

519

dacry/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

520

dlacrim/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

521

dipl/o

double

522

irid/o

iris

523

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

524

ocul/o

eye

525

ophthalm/o

eye

526

opt/o

eye, vision

527

retin/o

retina

528

scler/o

hardening; sclera

529

opia

vision

530

opsia

vision

531

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

532

-tropia

turning

533

acous/o

hearing

534

audi/o

hearing

535

myring/o

tympanic membrane (ear drum)

536

typman/0

ear drum

537

ot/o

ear

538

salping/o

tube

539

-acusis

hearing

540

achromatopsia

congenital deficiency in color preception/ color blindness

541

astigmatism

defective curvature of the cornea and lens

542

cataract

degenerative disease in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy

543

conjunctiveitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva that can be cause by bacteria, allergy, irritation or a foreign body; pinkeye

544

diabetic retinopathy

retinal damage marked by aneurysmal dilation and bleeding of blood vessels or the formation of new blood vessels causing visual changes.

545

glaucoma

condition in which the aqueous humor fails to drain and accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye causing evlevated pressure

546

hordeloum

small purulent inflammatory infection of a sebacceous gland of the eyelid; sty

547

macular degeneration

breakdown of the tissues in the macula, resuling in a loss of central vision

548

photophobia

unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light

549

strabismus

muscular eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so that they can deviate in different directions

550

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor that develops from the 8th CN and grows within the auditory canal

551

Meniere Disease

rare disorder of unknown etiology within the labyrinth of the inner ear that can lead to a progressive loss of hearing

552

Otitis media (OM)

inflammation of the middle ear

553

otosclerosis

progressive deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear

554

tinnitus

ringing in the ear

555

tonometry

procedure used to detect glaucoma

556

visual acuity test

standard eye test

557

audiometry

test that measures hearing acuity at various frequencies

558

otoscopy

visual exam of the external auditory canal and ear drum

559

Rinne Test

Hearing test performed with a vibrating tuning fork

560

radi/o

radiation, xray; radius lower arm bone, thumside)

561

ankyl/o

stiffness, bent crooked

562

arthr/o

joint

563

chondr/o

cartilage

564

lamin/o

lamina

565

myel/o

bone marrow

566

orth/o

straight

567

physis

growth

568

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

569

muscular dystrophy

group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue

570

myasthenia gravis MG

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue

571

rotator cuff injuries

injuries to the capsule of the shoulder joint which is reinforced by muscles and tendons

572

sprain

trauma to ta joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament accompanied by pain and disability

573

strain

trauma to a muscle from over use or excessive forcible stretch

574

talipes equinovarus

congenital deformity of the food also called club foot

575

torticollis

spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck, wryneck

576

CTS carpal tunnel syndrome

pain or numbness resulting from compression of the medial nerve within the carpal tunnel

577

contracture

fibroisis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

578

crepitation

grating sound made by the movement of bone ends rubbing together

579

Ewing Sarcoma

malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long bones or the pelvis

580

gout

hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, characterized by excessive uric acid in the blood and around the joints

581

herniated disk

herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus between two vertebrae

582

osteoporosis

decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures

583

Paget Disease

skeletal disease affecting elderly people that causes chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of long bones

584

RA

chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints

585

subluxation

partial or complete disclocation

586

sequestrum

fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

587

ankylosing spondylitis

chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that firsts affects the spine and characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae

588

kyphosis

increased curvature of the throacic region of the vertebral column, leading to ta humpback posture; also called hunchback

589

lordosis

forward curature of the lumbar region, leads to swayback

590

scoliosis

abnormal sideward curvature of the spine

591

spondylolisthesis

partical forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it

592

arthrocentesis

puncture of a joint space with a needle to remover fluid

593

rheunmatoid factor

blood test to detect the presence of the rheumatiod factor

594

arthroplasty

surgical reconstruction of a painful degenerated joint to restore movement

595

blephar/o

eyelid

596

conjuctive/o

conjuctiva

597

choroid/o

choroid

598

corne/o

cornea

599

cor/o

pupil

600

core/o

pupil

601

dacry/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

602

dlacrim/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

603

dipl/o

double

604

irid/o

iris

605

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

606

ocul/o

eye

607

ophthalm/o

eye

608

opt/o

eye, vision

609

retin/o

retina

610

scler/o

hardening; sclera

611

opia

vision

612

opsia

vision

613

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

614

-tropia

turning

615

acous/o

hearing

616

audi/o

hearing

617

audit/o

hearing

618

myring/o

tympanic membrane (ear drum)

619

typman/0

ear drum

620

ot/o

ear

621

salping/o

tube

622

-acusis

hearing

623

achromatopsia

congenital deficiency in color preception/ color blindness

624

astigmatism

defective curvature of the cornea and lens

625

cataract

degenerative disease in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy

626

conjunctiveitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva that can be cause by bacteria, allergy, irritation or a foreign body; pinkeye

627

diabetic retinopathy

retinal damage marked by aneurysmal dilation and bleeding of blood vessels or the formation of new blood vessels causing visual changes.

628

glaucoma

condition in which the aqueous humor fails to drain and accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye causing evlevated pressure

629

hordeloum

small purulent inflammatory infection of a sebacceous gland of the eyelid; sty

630

macular degeneration

breakdown of the tissues in the macula, resuling in a loss of central vision

631

photophobia

unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light

632

retinal detachment

separation of the retina from the choroid which disrupts vision and results in blindness if not repaired

633

strabismus

muscular eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so that they can deviate in different directions

634

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor that develops from the 8th CN and grows within the auditory canal

635

hearing loss

decreased ability to perceive sounds compared to what the individual or examiner would regard as normal

636

Meniere Disease

rare disorder of unknown etiology within the labyrinth of the inner ear that can lead to a progressive loss of hearing

637

Otitis media (OM)

inflammation of the middle ear

638

otosclerosis

progressive deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear

639

presbycusis

impairment of hearing that results from the aging process

640

tonometry

procedure used to detect glaucoma

641

visual acuity test

standard eye test

642

audiometry

test that measures hearing acuity at various frequencies

643

otoscopy

visual exam of the external auditory canal and ear drum

644

Rinne Test

Hearing test performed with a vibrating tuning fork