Memory and cognition Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Neuro (JK) > Memory and cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory and cognition Deck (35):
1

What is cognition?

highest order of brain function, relating to behaviour that deals with though processing and integrates all sensory information to make sense of a situation

2

What does learning and memory require?

motivation - neuronal plasticity

3

Association areas function

integrate information from multiple sources

4

Hippocampus function of learning and memory

forms memories

5

Cortex function of learning and memory

storage of memories

6

Thalamus function of learning and memory

searches and accesses memories

7

Emotional component of memories comes from which system?

limbic

8

What part of the limbic system has a link between emotion and ANS response?

hypothalamus

9

Reward areas

intense feeling of euphoria, pleasure and sexual arousal

10

Punishment areas

anger, terror, pain

11

What is the significance of reward and punishment areas?

gives a task SIGNIFICANCE - barely remember experience which is neither. drives every conscious thing we do.

12

What part of the brain picks which memories are stored?

limbic system

13

Describe a patient with bilateral hippocampal damage

motor skills intact eg play piano
immediate memory intact although cannot form new memories

14

What memories decay fastest?

visual

15

What memory are reverberating circuits associated with?

short term

16

Give an example of a task which would require short term memory

dialling a phone number

17

Immediate long term - what adaption occurs?

chemical adaption at presynaptic terminal

18

Long term memory - what adaption occurs?

structural changes in synaptic connections

19

In the reverberating circuit is each synapse inhibitory or excitatory?

excitatory

20

What does reverberation result in?

significant memory being consolidated into long term memory

21

If reverberation is disrupted by infection what can result?

amnesia

22

2 types of amnesia and their differences

anterograde - cannot form new memories
retrograde - cannot access more recent old memories

23

Anterograde amnesia description

inability to recall events after the injury and can be short lived or permanent

24

Retrograde amnesia description

cannot remember events leading up to injury although events long ago recall unaffected as deeply ingrained

25

Immediate long term memory - specific changes

increase calcium entry to presynaptic terminals increasing neurotransmitter release

26

Long term memory - 3 structural changes

increase in neurotransmitter vesicles
increase in presynaptic release sites
increase in number of presynaptic terminals

27

What is long term potentiation?

increased amplitude in graded membrane potential in post synaptic cell strengthens the synapse

28

What are the 2 main types of long term memory?

explicit and implicit

29

explicit memory - subtypes

abstract memory for remembering events (episodic)
words, rules, language (semantic)

30

explicit memory - part of brain

hippocampus

31

Implicit memory - part of brain and what it is

procedural/motor memory
repetition and muscle memory
cerebellum

32

What happens to new memories?

coded - stored in sensory and association areas of cortex and stored next to existing memories which are similar

33

Papez circuit

hippocampus -> mammillary bodies -> anterior thalamus -> cingulate gyrus

34

What parts of the brain do the reverberating circuits consolidate?

papaez circuit, frontal cortex and sensory and association areas

35

Where are memories stored in the cortex?

different areas eg auditory, visual