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Flashcards in Memory Building and Retention Deck (43):

Why do we need to have memory?

To retain useful skills (eg. language), knowledge (eg. ppl, places, culture), and expertise
To build a sense of self that endures: what do I believe, value, remember, and understand?
To go beyond conditioning in learning from personal and observed experiences



The persistence of learning over time thru the storage and retrieval of info and skills
Three behaviors show that it functions: recall, recognition, and relearning



One of three behaviors that show that memory is functioning
Analogous to "fill in the blanks"



One of three behaviors that show that memory is functioning
Form of "multiple choice"



One of three behaviors that show that memory is functioning
Measure of how much less work it takes to relearn info regardless of having a recollection of seeing the info before


Information Processing Pathway (Simplified)

1. Encoding: the info gets stored into our brains
2. Storage: the info is retained in a way that allows it to later be retrieved
3. Retrieval: the info is reactivated / recalled, produced in a form similar to how it was when it was encoded


Memory Formation Pathway (Atkinson-Shiffrin Model)

1. Stimuli are recorded by our sense and held briefly in sensory memory
2. Certain details of this info is processed into short-term memory and encoded via rehearsal
3. Info then moves into long-term memory where it can be retrieved later


Working Memory / Short-term Memory

Short-term memory system that actively holds multiple pieces of transitory info to rehearse and process them; can integrate new info into pre-existing long-term memory
Mechanisms include rehearsal, focus, analysis, linking, and other processing methods


Auditory Rehearsal

Mechanism of working memory
Rehearsing / processing info aurally in order to process it into long-term memory
eg. repeating a password to memorize it


Visospatial Sketchpadding

Mechanism of working memory
Rehearsing / processing info visually / spatially in order to process it into long-term memory
eg. rearranging furniture in your mind
eg. doing a math problem in your head


Explicit / Declarative Memories

Facts / experiences that we can consciously know and recall
Acquired thru effortful processing / Atkinson-Shiffrin Model


Effortful Processing

Studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing info into long-term memory
Includes all of the working memory methods / Atkinson-Shiffrin Model


Implicit Memories

Memories that we do not consciously know and thus cannot "declare" or talk about
Acquired through automatic processing
Include skills, procedures, conditioned association
Eg. muscle memory, riding a bike


Automatic Processing

Processing of a fact / experience into our implicit memory w/out the use of effortful processing / working memory
Mechanisms include: procedural memory, conditioned associations, spatial information, temporal information, and frequency information


Procedural Memory

Mechanism of automatic processing
Memory for performance of particular types of actions, often those that involve both cognitive and motor skills
eg. riding a bike, word meanings, tying a shoe


Conditioned Associations

Mechanism of automatic processing
Conditioning of the mind to retrieve a specific memory associated with a stimulus
eg. smell that triggers a specific place


Spatial Information in Automatic Processing

Aspect of automatic processing
Information about the general layout of a certain space is recorded into implicit memory
eg. ability to walk to bathroom during the night


Temporal Information in Automatic Processing

Aspect of automatic processing
Information about general time lapses are recorded into implicit memory
eg. ability to recall generally how much time has passed since event X


Frequency Information in Automatic Processing

Aspect of automatic processing
Information about the frequency of a specific event is recorded into our implicit memory
eg. ability to know generally how many swipes has been spent in one day


Sensory Memory

First phase of encoding and processing
The immediate, brief recording of sensory information before it is processed into short-term / long-term memory
Analogous to an echo / image of all the sensation we take in


Auditory Sensory Memory

Type of sensory memory
Ability to recall generally the last 8 words of the last sentence we were not consciously paying attention to


Visual Sensory (Iconic) Memory

Type of sensory memory
Result of George Sperling's Experiments
Ppl were exposed to a grid of letter for 0.05sec followed by a signal that told them which letter to pull from iconic memory


Capacity of Short-Term / Working Memory

Ppl can generally hold about 7 digits, 6 letters, 5 words


Duration of Short-Term Memory

Tested by Lloyd and Margaret Peterson
Ppl were given triplets of consonants and then given a distracting task to prevent rehearsing
After about 12sec, <10% of ppl could recall the consonants


Effortful Processing Strategy

Aka "studying"
Way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve
eg. chunking, mneumonics, categorizing, rehearsal, deep / semantic processing, assigning meaning to info



Effortful processing strategy
Organizing data into manageable units
Works even better in tandem with assigning meaning to chunks / groups



Effortful processing strategy
Memory trick that connects info to existing memory strengths such as imagery or structure
Peg word system: technique of visually associating new words w/ an existing list that is already memorized along w/ numbers
eg. one-gun, two-zoo, three-free, four-door


Hierarchies / Categories

Effortful processing strategy
A branching / nested set of categories and sub-categories
eg. Encoding / effortful processing branches out into (1) sensory memory, (2) capacity for stm / wm, (3) effortful processing strategies, which branches further into (3a) chunking, (3b) mneumonics, (3c) hierarchies


Rehearsal / Distributed Practice

Effortful processing strategy
Consistent / frequent practice or rehearsal of information


Massed Practice

Cramming information all at once


Spacing Effect

Noted by Hermann Ebbinghaus
Better info retention / recall comes from short, consistent intervals of study time spaced over many sessions


Testing Effect

Noted by Henry Roediger
Practice that includes testing leads to better retention / recall than simple rereading would


Deep / Semantic Processing

Effortful processing strategy
Focusing on the semantics (meanings) of the words
eg. analyzing the meaning, sound, and structure of a word


Making Information Personally Meaningful

Effortful processing strategy
Assigning / decoding meaning to info
Less effortful than memorizing nonsense syllables
eg. memorizing lines based on feelings / meanings behind the words, so that one line flows naturally to the next


Self-Reference Effect

Relating a piece of information to oneself
Aids encoding and retention


Memory Storage: Capacity and Location

Memories are in overlapping neural networks
Brain's long-term memory is constantly getting rewired / interconnected; parts of each memory are distributed in different areas of the brain


Explicit / Declarative Memory Processing

1. Retrieval / use of working memory directed by frontal lobes
2. Encoding / storage of explicit memory facilitated by hippocampus; events / facts are held here before they are consolidated to long-term storage


Cerebellum in Implicit Memory Processing

Cerebellum forms / stores conditioned responses; phobic responses can be stored even if the cause of the fear cannot be recalled


Basal Ganglia in Implicit Memory Processing

Basal Ganglia controls movement, and forms / stores procedural memory and motor skills


Infantile Amnesia

Explicit memories goes back to as early as 3 years old
Implicit memories are almost always retained
Occurs b/c:
1. Hippocampus is one of the last brain areas to develop
2. Adult mind has trouble accessing preverbal memories as declarative memories


Flashbulb Memories

Emotionally intense events that become "burned in" as a vivid-seeming memory including both emotional and sensual aspects


How does intense emotion cause the brain to form intense memories

1. Emotions cause a trigger in stress hormone rise
2. Hormones trigger activity in amygdala
3. Amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to "tag" the memo as important
4. Memories are stored w/ more sensory and emotional detail


Long-Term Potentiation

Process in which signals at a synapse are transferred more efficiently than before; result of repetition of a memory recall
Synaptic changes include reduction in the signal prompting requirement, and increase in neurotransmitter receptor sites
Prevention disrupts learning; boosting helps learning