Flashcards in Mesopotamia Deck (34):
What are the two rivers in mesopotamia
Euphrates and Tigris
What kind of civilization was mesopotamia
river valley civilization
what kind of climate was there
hot and dry
how were the rivers
rivers had a habit of flooding violently and unpredictably
why was Mesopotamia politically disjointed
because it was hard to communicate due to the rivers
How were the ethnicities and lingustics
they had different ethnicities and diverse languages
Who were the sumerians?
first group of people that developed urbanism
what was a ziggurat
religious sanctuary, political center, and an economic center
what was their writing
what was cuneiform?
their documentation, wedge writing
Who knew how to read cuneiform?
Rich people because they had the money to learn it
What kind of writing was cuneiform?
it was composed of symbols to represent letters and words. Its supposed to tell a story.
Why were all the cities walled?
To keep the enemies out, and the constant threats of war
What was the purpose of war?
for raw necessities, or because of the river
What was mesopotamia composed of?
What city states were there at this time?
Ur, Uruk, Akkad, Kish, and Babylon
Who was the first emperor
Sargon, he defeated other city-states around him and exploited them for their resources.
What empire did Sargon create?
Akkadian Empire, and it collapsed in a century/generation
What were the two main ethnicities?
sumerians (sumer civilization) akkadians (akkad civilization)
Who culturally influenced the akkadians
What kind of language does akkadians have?
What were the two texts in mesopotamia?
Code of Hummurabi and Epic of Gilgimesh
What was the code of hammurabi
highly structured, only complete law code we have from that time
What can Hammurabi's code tell us?
Issues and attempts at resolving them, their gender norms, role of the king, politics in mesopotamia, and laws governing tade/commerce, and crimes and punishments
What was political legitimacy based on at this time?
Claiming relation to the gods.
What was the relationship with the gods?
Do for me and I will do for you, tit for tat
What did the code include?
Administration of justice, property, irrigation, loans, intrests, debt slavery, marriage, family, personal injury and manslaughter
What is a city-state?
a city that governs themselves.
What does the epic tell us?
gives us insights into the role of monarchy, relationship with their subjects, expected norms and duties, religion and gods, and afterlife
What was the relationship between humans and gods?
Sacrificial, quit pro quo
What is anthropomorphic
What was the afterlife like?
They thought it was brutal and bleak. Complete opposite of life, bad clothes and bad food
Who was in the afterlife?
Everyone was equal in death, no matter who you were when you were alive