Metabolic Pathways Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry > Metabolic Pathways > Flashcards

Flashcards in Metabolic Pathways Deck (87):
0

Glycolysis: What

Converts glucose to 3 carbon compounds

1

Glycolysis: where

Cytoplasm

2

Glycolysis: substrate

Glucose

3

Glycolysis: end product

Pyruvate/ lactate (also NADH)

4

Glycolysis: rate limiting step

F6P to F1,6BP E: phosphofructokinase

5

Hexokinase is inhibited by

G6P

6

Glucokinase is inhibites by

Fructose 6P

7

Activates PFK 1

Fructose 2,6 BP

8

PFK is inhibited by

ATP ad citrate

9

Shuttle NADH

Malate aspartate shuttle; glycerol phosphate shuttle

10

Strictly glycolytic organs

RBC, lens, cornea, kidney medulla, testes, WBC

11

TCA: what for

ATP, gluceneogensis from skeletons of aa, building blocks for aa and heme(succinyk)

12

TCa: where?

Mitohondria exept succinate dehdrogenase in inner membrane

13

TCA: substrate

Acetyl coa

14

TCA: product

CO2, GTP, NADH, FADH2

15

TCA: rate limiting

Isocitrate to a ketoglutarate(via isocitrate dehydrogenase)

16

Inhibits citrate to isocitrate step(found in rat poison)

Fluoroacetate

17

TCA intermediate delivers acetyl coA to cytoplasm for FA synthesis via citrate shuttle

Citrate

18

TCA intermediate: heme synthesis and activation of ketone bodies

Succinyl coA

19

TCA intermediate: used for gluconeogensis

Malate

20

Gluconeogenesis: what for

Glucose from: TCA ang glycolysis intermediates; glycerol; lactate; a ketoacids (glucogenic amino acids)

21

Gluconeogenesis: where

Liver and kidney; mitochondria and cytoplams

22

Gluconeogenesis: substrate

Pyruvate

23

Gluconeogenesis: product

Glucose

24

Gluconeogenesis: rate limiting step

F1,6BP to F6P (fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase)

25

All carboxylase require this as a co factor

Biotin

26

Carboxylase reactions

Pyruvate to OAA(pyruvate carboxylase); acetyl coA to malonyl CoA(acetyl coA carboxylase); propionyl CoA(propionyl CoA)

27

Fructose 2,6 BP promotes glycolysis and hinders glucneogensis via its action on?

PFK 1- inhibition; F1,6 BP inhibition

28

Glycogenesis: what for

Synthesis of new glycogen molecules from a-D glucose

29

Glycogenesis: where

Liver and muscle; cytosok

30

Glycogenesis: substrates

UDP glucose; ATP and UTP; glycogenin

31

Glycogenesis: product

Glycogen

32

Glycogenesis: rate limiting

Glycogen elongation- Glycogen synthase

33

Glycogenolysis: what for

Produce molecules of a-D- glucose

34

Glycogenolysis: where

Liver and muscles

35

Glycogenolysis: substrate

Glycogen; limit dextrin

36

Glycogenolysis: products

Glucose 1-P and free glcose

37

Glycogenolysis: rate limiting step

Removal of glucose (breaks a 1-4 bonds) (glycogen phosphorylase)

38

In what metabolic pahway so you find aldolase A

Glyolysis

39

In what metabolic pahway so you find aldolase B

Fructose metabolism

40

Mannose 6-P to fructose 6-P what enzyme?

Phosphomannose isomerase

41

Glucose to sorbitol is mediated by what enzyme

Aldose reductase

42

Sorbitol to fructose is mediaed by what enzyme

Sorbitol dehydrogenase

43

Pentose phosphate pathway: what for

Produces NADPH, ribose 5 phosphate, metabolic use of 5 C sugars

44

Pentose phosphate pathway: where

Cystoplasm; lipid producing tissues

45

Pentose phosphate pathway: substrates

Glucose 6-P

46

Pentose phosphate pathway: products

Ribose 5 P, fructose 6 P, glyceraldehyde 3P, NADPH

47

Pentose phosphate pathway: rate limiting

Glucose 6 P to 6 phosphogluconate (glucose 6P dehdyrogenase)

48

Transketolases require what vitamin

Thiamine

49

Fatty acid synthesis: whatnfir

Palmitate

50

Fatty acid synthesis: where

Cytosol

51

Fatty acid synthesis: substrates

1 acetyl coa, 7malonyl co-, NADPH and ATP

52

Fatty acid synthesis: product

Palmitate

53

Fatty acid synthesis: rate limiting step

Acetyl coa+ ATP to malonyl CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase)

54

Steps in assembly of palmitate

Condensaion, reduction, dehydration, reduction

55

Ketogenesis: what for?

Converts acetyl coA to ketone bodies

56

Ketogenesis: where

Mitochondria

57

Ketogenesis: substrate

Acetyl coA

58

Ketogenesis: products

Ketone bodied, acetone

59

Ketogenesis: rate limitig step

Acretoacetyl coA +acetyl coA to HMG coA (HMG CoA synthase)

60

Why cant the liver degraebprncknvert acetoacetate to CoA

It lacks succinyl coA acetoacetyl CoA transferase (thiophrase)

61

Cholesterol synthesis: what for

De novo synthesis of cholesterol

62

Cholesterol synthesis: where

All cells, cytosol and smooth ER; liver and INTESTINES

63

Cholesterol synthesis: substrates

Acetyl coA, NADPH, ATP

64

Cholesterol synthesis: products

Lanosterol- cholesterol

65

Cholesterol synthesis: rate limiting

HMG coA to mevalonate (HMG coA reductase)

66

Farnesyl pyrophospate is an intemerdiate used for:

(Cholesterol synthesis)
1. Synthesis of Coenzyme Q
2. Synthesis of dolichol pyrophosphate
3. Prenylation of proteins

67

Bile synthesis: Rate limiting enzyme

Cholesterol 7 a hydroxylase

68

Bile acids are conjugated with

Glycine and taurine

69

Excreted bile is reabsorbed where?

Terminal ileum

70

Steroid hormone synthesis: what for

Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones

71

Steroid hormone synthesis: where

Smooth ER: adrenal cortrex, ovaries and testes, placenta

72

Steroid hormone synthesis: substrates

Cholesterol, pregnanalone

73

Steroid hormone synthesis: rate limiting step

Cholesterol to pregnanalone (desmolass)

74

Blocks rate limiting stepnod steroid formation

Aminogluthemide

75

Apoprotein secreted by epithelial cells:

B 48

76

Apoprotein thy actuvates lipoprotein lipase

C II

77

Apoprotein that mediates uptake by liver

E

78

Apoprotein secreted by liver

B 100

79

Apoprotein that activates lecithin cholestrol acyltransferase or LCAT to produce cholesterol esters

A-1

80

Urea cycle: substrate

NH3, aspartate, CO2

81

Urea cycle: Rate limiting step

CO2 + NH3 to carbamoyl phosphate (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I aka CPD I)

82

Urea cycle: cofactors

N acetylglutamate and Biotin

83

Cyclic compounds formed by linkage of four pyrrole rings through methyne

Porphyrins

84

Rate limiting step in heme synthesis

Glycine + succinyl coA to d- aminolevulinic acid (ALA SYNTHASE)

85

Heme synthesis: cofactor

Pyridoxine

86

Glycolysis steps

Goodness Gracious father franklin dis go by picking pumpkins