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Flashcards in Metabolism Information Deck (20)
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1

Which two fatty acids are truly essential?

(6)-linoleic acid

(3) linolenic acid

2

What are the conditionally essential amino acids?

Arginine, cysteine and tyrosine

3

Percentage of total calories by macromolecules

Lipids = 85% (triglycerides in adipose cells)

Protein = 15% (skeletal proteins)

Carbs = >1% (stored as glycogen in liver and muscle cells)

4

Oxidative combustion

Glucose/fatty acids are degraded into CO2 and H20, proteins into NH3

- in nonbiological combustion = 100% energy is released as heat

- in biological combustion = 60% is released as heat ; 40% is stored as chemical power

5

Activator of glucose

UDP attachment (makes glycogen)

6

Activator of fatty acids

CoA linkages (makes triglycerides)

7

Activator of AAs

T-RNA addition (makes proteins)

8

Catabolic pathways

Oxidation of precurosrs and degradation of macromolecules to produce energy

9

Anabolic pathways

Activation of precursors and synthesis of macromolecules using energy

10

Aerobic capacity depends on what?

The density of the mitochondria

11

Types of cells in order of most aerobic to least aerobic

Hepatocytes - >
Type 1 red slow-twitch - >
Type 2A red fast-twitch ->
Type 2B white fast-twitch ->
Erythrocytes

12

Hemoglobin

Tetrameric protein that has 4 heme groups and carries 4 oxygen molecules

13

Myoglobin

Monomeric protein that contains only 1 heme group and binds only 1 oxygen atom.

14

In order to bind oxygen what must happen to heme?

Remain reduced +2

15

Cells and their visible light absorption

Hemoglobin = red

Myoglobin = red-brown

Cytochrome = brown

Organic molecules = colorless (unless containing porphyrin ring structures_

16

What form does more dietary lipids take?

Triglycerides

17

Humans cannot make fatty acids with double bonds beyond what carbon position?

9

18

What are the forms of dietary carbohydrates?

Starch, sucrose lactose and glucose

(Glucose accounts for the carb most absorbed in the gut).

19

What diets are not possible to survive on?

Protein and fat free are impossible to live off of. (There are essential protiens and fats)

- can live off a carb free diet.

20

Why are chlorophylls green?

The magnesium ions reflect green light back