Micro congenital and neonatal infections Flashcards Preview

ABBEY MSII U6 > Micro congenital and neonatal infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro congenital and neonatal infections Deck (32):
1

what are the congenital infections?

rubella, CMV, HIV, toxoplasma, treponema, parvovirus B19, HSV, VZV

2

what are the manifestations of congenital infections?

growth retardation (low birth weight), congenital malformations, stillbirths

3

what are the perinatal infections?

neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia, HSV, strep B, e coli, listeria

4

what are the manifestations of perinatal infections?

maningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, preterm labor

5

what are the postnatal infections?

from breast milk: HIV, CMV, HBV
umbilicus: staph aureus, tetanus
person to person: group B strep, listeria, e coli

6

what are the postnatal infections manifestations?

minigitis, septicemia, conjunctivitis, pneumonitis

7

what are the signs of congenital infection?

growth retardation, congential defects, abnormal head size, rash, intracranial calcifications, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, inflammation of CSF, hepatosplenomegaly, hematologic abnormalities, bone lesions

8

how is definitive diagnosis of congenital infection made?

isolate pathogen from infant!!

9

what are the congenital infections

TORCH
Toxoplasmosis
Other (syphilis, hep B, VZV, parvovirus B19, HIV, HTLV-1
Rubella
CMV
HSV

10

toxoplasma gondii classic triad

chorioretinitis (can result in vision loss), hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications

11

diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

IgM+ in infant is diagnostic

12

toxoplasma treatment

pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine + folinic acid for one year

13

congenital syphilis manifestations

by 3 months:
large puffy placenta, hepatomegaly, rhinitis (snuffles!), rash, lymphadenopathy

14

test for t. pallidum

VDRL (venereal disease research lab), darkfield microscopic exam

15

t. pallidum treatment

penicillin G

16

rubella symptoms

hearing loss!
microcephaly, PDA (patent ductus arteriosis), cataracts

17

risk factors for congenital CMV

no prior infection, pregnancy at younger age, first pregnancy, new sex partner during pregnancy, frequent contact with babies/toddlers
-especially PRIMARY infection

18

CMV symptoms

most asymptomatic - 10% with symptoms
small size, hepatosplenomegaly, rash, jaundice, chorioretinitis, neuro involvement (microcephaly, seizures, abnormal neuro, feeding difficulties)

19

congenital CMV diagnosis and treatment

diagnose: PCR on urine or blood
treat: ganciclovir IV or valganciclovie PO

20

congenital herpes simplex infections - what is worst situation for baby

HSV-2; primary infection ; visible lesions; intrauterine; disseminated infection (causes severe mental impairment)

21

treatment of HSV

C-section birth, antiviral prophylaxis, acyclovir for infant

22

congenital varicella syndrome

primary infection in mother damages fetus - limbs and brain development are impaired

23

congenital varicella treatment and prevention

acyclovir - prevent with vaccination of all seronegative women who reach childbearing age

24

parvovirus B19 presentation

febrile illness without rash precedes followed by "slapped cheek" rash on face and erythematous maculopapular rash, arthralgia, arthritis

25

what are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis

group B strep and e coli

26

risk for chronic infection with HBV

90%

27

what treatment is used for women with HIV

3 part zidovudine (ZDV) regimen - reduces transmission rate to 2%
-avoid agents with tertogenic effects (efavirenz)

28

group B strep

encapsulated gram-positive diplococcus - 25% women asymptomatic carriers

29

what are risk factors for early-onset GBS (group B strep) disease

previous baby with GBS, GBS in urine, fever during labor, heavy maternal colonization, delivery before 37 weeks, premature or prolonged rupture of membranes

30

what reduces risk of group B strep in babies

IAP intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis

31

what are symptoms of GBS infection

1. early onset: respiratory tachypnea, grunting, hypoxia, appears ill, temperature instability, hypotension, shock
2. late onset: sepsis (fever, irritability, lethargy, poor feeding, tachypnea, gruniting apnea), meningitis (bulging fontanel, nuchal rigidity, focal neurologic findings
3. late onset GBS: sepsis with foci in CNS, soft tissues, bones, joints

32

GBS diagnosis and management

culture bacteria from normally steril site (CNS)
sensitive to penicillin (IAP)