Pharm GI drugs 1 Flashcards Preview

ABBEY MSII U6 > Pharm GI drugs 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm GI drugs 1 Deck (48)
Loading flashcards...
1

what stimulates acid production?

1. gastrin (form antrum)
2. acetylcholine (vagal inputs, CNS)
3. histamine (stimulated by acetylcholine and gastrin from mast cells)
4. parietal cell H/K ATPase - final common pathway

2

where is stomach acid made and what stimulates its release?

parietal cell - stimulated by histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine

3

how does acetylcholine stimulate the proton pump?

through Ca activating a protein kinase

4

how does gastrin stimulate the proton pump?

through Ca activating a protein kinase

5

how does histamine stimulate the proton pump?

through g couple protein causing increased cAMP which activates teh protein kinase

6

what has an inhibitory affect on acid release?

prostaglandin E2

7

what is the approach to treating ulcers?

1. relief of symptoms (esp pain)
2. promotion of healing
3. prevention of complications such as perforation, hemorrhage, scar formation
4. prevention of recurrence

8

what are the three mechanisms for pharmacologic interventions for treatment of ulcers?

1. neutralize acid
2. decrease acid production
3. increase mucosal resistance

9

what pharmacologic agents are used to neutralize acid?

antacids

10

what pharmacologic agents are used to decrease acid production?

1. anticholinergics (antimuscarinic)
2. antihistamines
3. proton pump inhibitors

11

what pharmacologic agents are used to increase mucosal resistance?

1. prostaglandins
2. sucralfate
3. bismuth

12

what does acid neutralizing efficiency depend on?

1. neutralizing power of the antacid
2. the degree or rate of acid secretion
3. the rate of stomach emptying

13

what are the characteristics of an ideal antacid?

1. elevate pH to at least 5
2. best taken about 1 hr after each meal (acidity at peak)
3. liquid formulations act more promptly and are more effective than tablet

14

what are the antacids?

1. calcium carbonate
2. sodium bicarbonate
3. magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate
4. aluminum hydroxide

15

calcium carbonate therapeutics and side effects

therapeutics: ulcer and GERD
SE: milk-alkali syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, "rebound" acidity, digitalis antagonism

16

sodium bicarbonate therapeutics and side effects

therapeutics: ulcer and GERD
SE: systemic alkalosis (rarely used now)
also enhanced effects of amphetamine, quinidine, and cinchophen

17

magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate therapeutics and side effects

therapeutics: ulcer and GERD
SE: diarrhea!, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, iron deficiency
*magnesium toxicity in renal disease

18

aluminum hydroxide therapeutics and side effects

therapeutics: ulcer and GERD
SE: phosphate depletion and sequelae (weakness, anemia, tetany, apnea), constipation!
*used in patients with renal failure (also helps eliminate phosphate!)

19

what are other common ingredients used in antacid preparations?

1. defoaming agent (antiflatulent effects)
2. sodium (can cause some salt and water retention - careful in cardiac failure, edema, ascites, HTN)

20

what do antacids cause enhanced absorption of?

dicumarol and L-dopa

21

what do antacids caused reduced absorption of?

phenothiazines, INH, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, sulfonamides, calcium

22

what is a difficulty when prescribing antacids?

patient compliance (stop when pain stops and then ulcer relapses)

23

side effects of anticholinergic agents

dryness of mouth, blurred vision, atony of the bladder, constipation, drowsiness, mental confusionatropine

24

what are the anticholinergics used to decrease acid production?

atropine sulfate, propantheline, metantheline bromide

25

when are anticholinergics administered?

30 min before meals and at bedtime

26

what are contraindications for anticholinergics?

pyloric obstruction, patients with hiatus hernia, peptic esophagitis

27

what are the drugs that competitively inhibit the histamine H2 receptor?

-tidines
cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine

28

why are the H2 receptors blockers good drugs to use for decreasing acid production?

-decrease basal and food stimulated acid secretion
-don't have to be administered in relationship to meals
-one large dose just as effective as frequent smaller doses
-can be used prophylacticly
-long-term maintenance, reducing relapse
-more convenient = better compliance

29

what is a disadvantage to using H2 blockers?

rebound hyperacidity (more acid output after stopping treatment) - need to taper dose

30

side effects of H2 blockers?

severe adverse effects uncommon. headache, lethargy, confusion, depression, hallucinations