Pharm elderly pharm Flashcards Preview

ABBEY MSII U6 > Pharm elderly pharm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm elderly pharm Deck (30):
1

what are pharmacokinetics based on?

absorption
distribution
metabolism
elimination

2

what does aging affect absorption?

-amount absorbed (bioavailability) is not changed
-but peak serum concentration may be lower and delayed

3

what is the exception to aging and absorption?

drugs with extensive first pass effect - bioavailability may increase because less drug is extracted by the liver which is smaller with reduced blood flow

4

what are the factors that affect absorption?

-route of administration (enteral feedings interfere with absorption of some drugs)
-what is taken with the drug (divalent cations - ca, mg, fe - can affect absorption of many fluoroquinolones; drugs)
-comorbid illnesses (increased gastric pH may increase/decrease absorption)

5

what are the effects of aging on volume of distribution

-lower body water (lower VD for hydrophilic drug)
-lower lean body mass (lower VD for drugs that bind muscle)
-higher fat stores (higher VD for lipophilic drugs)
-lower plasma protein (albumin) - higher percentage of drug that is unbound (active)

6

what are the effects of aging on metabolism

metabolic clearance of a drug by the liver may be reduced because aging decreases liver blood flow, size and mass

7

phase I metabolic pathways

hydroxylation, oxidation, dealkylation and reduction
-convert drugs to metabolites with greater, less or the same effect as the parent compound

8

phase II metabolic pathways

convert drugs to inactive metabolites that do not accumulate

9

which metabolic pathway is preferred for older patients?

phase II (convert drugs to inactive metabolites that do not accumulate)

10

example of phase 1 pathway metabolism drug

benzodiazepine (causes old people to fall down)

11

examples of protein bound drugs

warfarin, barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamezapine

12

examples of water soluble drugs

digoxin and lithium

13

example of lipid-soluble drug

diazepam

14

list some drugs that require dose reduction with decreased creatinine clearance

aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, procainamide, lithium, digoxin, metformin, biphosphonates, thiazides, atenolol, clofibrate, fluconazole, ACEi

15

what are some other factors other than aging that affect drug metabolism?

gender, hepatic congestion from heart failure, smoking (increases clearance of theophylline)

16

list some drugs that require hepatic metabolism

NSAIDs, aspirin, Ca channel blockers, acetaminophen, statins, cimetidine, ranitidine, proton pump inhibitors, beta blockers, ketoconazole, tricylic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, valproic acid, lidocaine, erythromycin, phenytoin

17

why is kidney function critical for elimination of a drug?

-most drugs exit via kidney
-reduced elimination causes drug accumulation and toxicity

18

what are the effects of aging on the kidney?

-reduced kidney size
-reduced renal blood flow
-reduced number of functioning nephrons
-reduced renal tubular secretion
--> lower GFR

19

why does serum creatinine not reflect creatinine clearance?

lower lean body mass causes lower creatinine production AND there is a lower GFR causing serum creatinine to stay in normal range while masking change in creatinine clearance

20

what is the equation to calculate creatinine clearance?

cockroft and gault:
(ideal weight in kg)(140-age) / (72)(serum creatinine in mg/dL) X (.85 if female)

21

pharmacodynamics definition

time course and intensity of pharmacologic effect of a drug

22

impact of aging on pharmacodynamics

may change with aging:
-benzos cause more sedation and poorer psychomotor performance in older adults (d/t reduced clearance of drug)
-older patients may experience higher levels of morphine with longer pain relief

23

which medications are most commonly involved in adverse drug events?

cardiovascular, CNS (esp anticholinergics), musculoskeletal medications, diphenhydramine (PM meds)

24

what are the risk factors for adverse drug events?

1. 6 or more concurrent chronic conditions
2. 12+ doses of drugs/day
3. 9+ meds
4. prior adverse drug reaction
5. low body weight or BMI
6. age 85+
7. estimated CrCl less than 50

25

most common adverse effects of drug-drug interactions

1. confusion
2. cognitive impairment
3. arterial hypotension (esp when standing)
4. acute renal failure

26

risk with combination of ACE inhibitor + diuretic

hypotension, hyperkalemia

27

risk with combination of antiarrhythmic + diuretic

electrolyte imbalance, arrhythmias

28

risk with combination of calcium channel blocker + diuretic or nitrate

hypotension

29

principles of prescribing for older patients

start low and go slow!
titrate upward slowly and avoid starting 2 drugs at teh same time

30

what are the most important things to check before starting a drug/receiving a new elderly patient?

1. creatinine clearance
2. BP standing and sitting
3. digoxin should be a lower dose
4. PM drugs have a fall risk
5. iron is constipating