Flashcards in Pharm clinical toxicology Deck (27)
altered mental status, decreased RR, pinpoint pupils, decreased bowel sounds
what are the opioids?
heroin, fentanyl, codeine, hydrocodone, meperidien, oxycodone, methadone, buprinorphine
what is the competitive opioid receptor antagonist used in overdose?
naloxone (short half life)
what are the other opioid receptor antagonist?
nalmefene and naltrerxone (longer half lives)
naloxone associated opioid withdrawal
flu like symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), piloerection ,yawning, irritability, NORMAL MENTAL STATUS, lasts 15-30 min
depressed mental status, normal vital signs
benzodiazepine mechanism and what are they used to treat?
enhance the effect of GABA - treat anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal
-also used to treat toxicity caused by other toxins that cause CNS stimulation such as anticholinergic toxins
what is the competitive non-selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist? (used to treat overdose)
flumazenil dangers (benzo overdose drug)
can precipitate acute withdrawal and cause seizures
acetaminophen toxicity - mechanism?
hepatic necrosis and renal failure - when too much acetaminophen - broken down into different by product that is toxic to the liver
APAP (acetominophen) poisoning treatment
antidote = n-acetylcysteine (NAC) - best given within 8 hours of overdose
tricyclic antidepressant toxidrome
anticholinergic, catechol reuptake inhibitor, alpha adrenergic blocker (hypotension), GABA antagonist (seizures), sodium channel blocker (THE KILLER)
what effect does sodium channel blocker have?
wide QRS segment for heart action potential
antidote for tricyclic antidepressant overdose
sodium bicarbonate (replace sodium to overcome inhibition and alkalinization to reduce TCA affinity to its receptor in the myocardium)
mydriasis (dilated), dry, flushed skin, decreased bowel sounds, urinary retention, increased temperature, altered mental status (confusion, hallucinations, seizures)
what are the anticholinergics?
atropine, diphenhydramine, scopolamine
antidote for anticholinergic overdose
miosis, salivation, lacrimation, ruination, defecation, CNS excitation, bronchorrhea/spasm, fasciculations
what are the cholinergic agents
anticholinesterases (including nerve gases, organophosphates, carbamates, physostigmine, neostigmine) and cholinomimetics (bethanechol)
what is the cholinergic overdose antidote?
atropine (anticholinergic) for MUSCARINIC ONLY
and pralidoxime (enzyme regenerator) for NICOTINIC AND MUSCARINIC!
what is the DD for anion gap metabolic acidosis?
Diabetic ketoacidosis (all ketoacidosis)
Paraldehyde, phenformin, metformin
Lactate (CO, CN, methemoglobinemia)
what is used to treat methanol overdose?
femopizole and hemodialysis
calcium channel overdose clinical effects
-if nifedipine and other dihydropyridines (blood vessels) peripheral vasodilation, reflex tachycardia, hypotension
-if verapamil or diltiazem (heart and blood vessels) = hypotension d/t vasdilation, bradycardia, negative inotropic effects
CNS stimulation, agitation, hallucinations, seizures, increased muscle activity = increased temp, increased CK, kidney injury
phencyclidine (PCP)/ketamine/DM toxicity
dissociative anesthetic = depends on dose
low = euphoria
medium = agitation, anesthesia, increased strength
high = CNS anesthesia
what are downers?
GABA agonists (GHB, roofies)