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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (260)
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181

What swab is most appropriate for impetigo?

black charcoal swab

182

What is impetigo commonly caused by?

staphylococcus aureus

183

How does celluilitis present?

erythematous, hot and tender skin, commonly of leg, fever, painful

184

What investigations should be done for cellulitis?

take blood from more than one sire on more than one occasion

185

Treatment of s.pyogenes?

penicillin/benzyl penicillin

186

What organism commonly causes cellulitis?

s. pyogenes

187

What does MRSA stand for?

methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

188

How is MRSA carriage identified?

chromogenic MRSA plate on swabs from the axillae and groin

189

What kind of antibiotic is vancomycin?

glycopeptide

190

Treatment of community acquired pneumonia?

amoxcillin

191

What pathogens atypically cause community acquired pneumonia?

chlamydophilia psittaci/pneumoniae
mycoplasma pneumoniae
coxiella burnetti
legionella penumophilia

192

How does pneumonia present?

increased HR and RR but low BP, cough, confusion

193

Treatment of legionella pneumophilia and why?

clarithrimycin or ciprofloxacin as atypical pathogens that cause pneumonia are not sensitive to amoxicillin

194

What investigation in done in chronic bronchitis?

sputum

195

What does gram negative with white colonies of chocolate agar suggest?

H.influenzae

196

What is the treatment of H.influenzae

amoxicillin and doxycycline

197

What agars is H.influenzae testing on?

blood agar and chocolate agar

198

Why is chocolate agar needed for H.influenzae?

the heating of the agar causes release of nutrients that H.influenzae needs for its fastiduous growth, X and V plates have been added too and it only colonies around the XV disc as both are needed, confirming H.influenzae

199

What 2 stains are used to detect mycobacteria?

ziehl neelsen stain and auramine phenol flourescent stains

200

Why does TB not show anything on gram stain?

has a different cell wall from other bacteria

201

What culture medium is used in TB and why?

Lowenstein Jensen Slope - as MTB divides very slow and may take up to 6 weeks to grow

202

What is seen on TB biopsy?

caseating granulomata

203

How can sputum be obtained?

induced or bronchoalveolar lavage

204

What will sputum show in HIV?

cysts of P.jiroveci

205

Treatment of P.jireoveci?

co-trimoxazole
prednisolone if significant type 1 resp failure

206

CD4 count in HIV?

207

Treatment of pseudomonas in bronchietasis exacerbatio?

antipseudomonal beta lactam or fluroquinolone

208

What medium are fungus grown on?

Sabourad's agar

209

Examples of fungus infections?

aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans

210

What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in neonates?

e.coli, group b streptococcus and listeria monocytogenes