Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (260)
What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in infants?
neisseria mengitidis, H.influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae
What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in young adults?
neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae
What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in elderly?
streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis and listeria
What are the main viral causes of meningitis?
mumps, echo, coxsackie, enteroviruses, HSV, lymphocytic chorio meningitis virus, poliovirus
Symptoms of meningitis?
stiff neck, photophobia, headache, rash
Investigations in meningitis?
CSF, bloods, nose and throat swabs, stool, serology
Symptoms of encephalitis?
lethargy, fatigue, decreased consciousness, fever
Main viruses that cause encephalitis?
HSV, varicella zoster virus, parvovirus, HIV, mumps, measles
Investigations in encephalitis?
CSF, PCR, serology of blood to detect antibodies
Treatment of H.influenzae in babies?
IV cefotaxime or ceftrixone
What are 25% of women at childbearing age asymptomatically carrying in their genital tract?
group b streptococcus
Who is at risk of listeria monocytogenes (group B strep)?
pregnant women, neonates, elderly, immunodeficient, chronic glucocorticosteroid use, DM
If at risk of listeria monocytogenes, what additional antibiotic therapy should be used with cefotaxime in meningitis treatment?
Which organism that causes meningitis grows better on chocolate agar than blood agar?
Who needs to be informed of a meningitis outbreak?
public health england, close contacts for prophylaxis
What is used for meningitis prophylaxis?
single dose of oral ciporflaxcin or 2 day course of oral rifampicin
What does a predominantly lymphocytic CSF suggest in CNS diagnosis?
viral meningitis or encephalitis
Treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis?
IV antibiotics and IV acyclovir
What is the most common cause of encephalitis?
herpes simplex virus
How can you confirm a herpes simplex virus?
Bacterial causes of diarrhea?
e.coli, v.cholerae, s.sonnei (dysenteriae)
Organisms from food poisoning causing diarrhea?
salmonella, campylobacter, cl.perfringens, B.cereus, St.aureus
Antibiotic causes of diarrhea?
cl.difficile, st.aureua, c.albicans
Viral causes of diarrhea?
Systemic infections causing diarrhea?
s.typhi, s.paratyphi, h.pylori
How can salmonella be further classified?
presence of different O (oligosaccharide) and H (flagellar) surface antigens, using agglutination tests and are classified using the Kauffman White scheme
What investigations are done on stool samples for persistent diarrhea?
wet prep and staining with fluorescent antibodies
What organism are young children and immunocompromised at risk of that causes watery diarrhea?
c.parvum (detected in stool sample)
What pathogens can be detected in a stool sample?
c.parvum, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, helminths