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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (260)
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211

What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in infants?

neisseria mengitidis, H.influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae

212

What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in young adults?

neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae

213

What are the main bacterial causes of meningitis in elderly?

streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis and listeria

214

What are the main viral causes of meningitis?

mumps, echo, coxsackie, enteroviruses, HSV, lymphocytic chorio meningitis virus, poliovirus

215

Symptoms of meningitis?

stiff neck, photophobia, headache, rash

216

Investigations in meningitis?

CSF, bloods, nose and throat swabs, stool, serology

217

Symptoms of encephalitis?

lethargy, fatigue, decreased consciousness, fever

218

Main viruses that cause encephalitis?

HSV, varicella zoster virus, parvovirus, HIV, mumps, measles

219

Investigations in encephalitis?

CSF, PCR, serology of blood to detect antibodies

220

Treatment of H.influenzae in babies?

IV cefotaxime or ceftrixone

221

What are 25% of women at childbearing age asymptomatically carrying in their genital tract?

group b streptococcus

222

Who is at risk of listeria monocytogenes (group B strep)?

pregnant women, neonates, elderly, immunodeficient, chronic glucocorticosteroid use, DM

223

If at risk of listeria monocytogenes, what additional antibiotic therapy should be used with cefotaxime in meningitis treatment?

IV amoxicillin

224

Which organism that causes meningitis grows better on chocolate agar than blood agar?

Neisseria meningitidis

225

Who needs to be informed of a meningitis outbreak?

public health england, close contacts for prophylaxis

226

What is used for meningitis prophylaxis?

single dose of oral ciporflaxcin or 2 day course of oral rifampicin

227

What does a predominantly lymphocytic CSF suggest in CNS diagnosis?

viral meningitis or encephalitis

VIRUS

228

Treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis?

IV antibiotics and IV acyclovir

229

What is the most common cause of encephalitis?

herpes simplex virus

230

How can you confirm a herpes simplex virus?

PCR

231

Bacterial causes of diarrhea?

e.coli, v.cholerae, s.sonnei (dysenteriae)

232

Organisms from food poisoning causing diarrhea?

salmonella, campylobacter, cl.perfringens, B.cereus, St.aureus

233

Antibiotic causes of diarrhea?

cl.difficile, st.aureua, c.albicans

234

Viral causes of diarrhea?

rotavirus, SRSV

235

Systemic infections causing diarrhea?

s.typhi, s.paratyphi, h.pylori

236

How can salmonella be further classified?

presence of different O (oligosaccharide) and H (flagellar) surface antigens, using agglutination tests and are classified using the Kauffman White scheme

237

What investigations are done on stool samples for persistent diarrhea?

wet prep and staining with fluorescent antibodies

238

What organism are young children and immunocompromised at risk of that causes watery diarrhea?

c.parvum (detected in stool sample)

239

What pathogens can be detected in a stool sample?

c.parvum, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, helminths

240

Treatment of rota virus gastroenteritis?

supportive, and isolation