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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (260)
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241

How do antibiotics cause diarrhea?

increased risk of infection from PPI acid suppression

242

Treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea caused by C.diff?

stop the antibiotics, oral vancomycin or metronidazole, isolationg

243

Antibiotics for ruptured appendicitis?

CoAmoxiclav or cefuroxime and metronidazole

244

What is the purpose of an Mz disc?

it contains metronidazole which confirms the presence of anaerobic bacteria if it prevents growth

245

Antibiotics for anaerobic bacterioides?

metronidazole

246

Antibiotics for ascending cholangitis?

co amoxiclav

247

What is dysentery?

inflammatory disorder of GI tract with blood and pus in the faeces with pain, fever, abdominal cramps, usually caused from disease of the large intestine

248

Gram negative bacilli organisms in the GI tract?

salmonella, shigella, e.coli, campylobacter jejuni, helicobacter pylori

249

What is infectivity?

the ability to become established in a host

250

What is virulence?

the ability to cause disease

251

What is invasiveness?

capacity to penetrate mucosal surface to reach normally sterile sites

252

What is a microbiome?

the totality of microorganisms, gentic elements and enviromental interactions

253

metagenomomics?

the use of genetics to describe microoragnisms diversity

254

What are the different types of adhesions that help bacteria bind to mucosal surfaces?

fimbriae, non fimbrial proteins, lipid, glycosaminoglycans, lectins of viruses and parasites, miscellaneous viral capsids

255

Virulent factors in bacteria?

pili for adherance to mucosal surface
motility to reach mucosal surfaces
IgA protease for IgA cleavage
iron binding proteins to trap iron
capsule to prevent phagocytosis and complement deposition
antigenic variation for evasion of antibodies

256

Types of toxins?

ADP ribosylating, adenylate cyclase, RNA gangliosidase, metalloproteiniase, cholesterol dependent

257

What are superantigens?

bacteria and viruses can produce antigens that bind outside the peptide groove of the T cell receptor to stimulate a large number of T cells e.g. EBV

258

Where are the 2 places that toxins can be?

chromosomal or on plasmids

259

What is C.diphtheriae?

a toxin spread by droples that inhibits protein synthesis and toxin recognition on Elek plate, preventing with vaccination

260

S.pneumoniae virulence factors?

polysaccharide capsule, polyvalent vaccine with 23 types, inflammatory wall constituents with teichoic acid and peptidoglycan, releases the cytotoxin pneumolysin