Microbiology of the Genital tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology of the Genital tract Deck (77)
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1

What is the predominate bacteria in the normal vaginal flora and what does it do?

lactobacillus spp. - produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide to suppress the growth of other bacteria

2

What other organisms are present in the normal vaginal flora?

Strep viridans
Group B-haemolytic Strep
Candida spp.

3

Name 3 non-sexually transmitted genital tract infections

Candida (thrush)
Bacterial vaginosis (fishy smell)
prostatitis

4

What % of woman are colonised by Candida but show no symptoms of a thrush infection?

30%

5

What are predisposing factors for a candida infection?

recent antibiotic therapy
High oestrogen levels (pregnancy, some contraceptives)
Poorly controlled diabetes
Immunocompromised patients

6

What is the presentation of thrush?

Intensely itchy white vaginal discharge

7

How do you clinically diagnose thrush?

High vaginal swab for culture

8

What organism causes most cases of thrush?

Candida albicans

9

What is the treatment of Candida infections?

Topical clotrimazole pessary or cream
Oral fluconazole

10

What organisms can cause Bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis
Mobiluncus sp.
Others include anaerobes

11

What are the predisposing factors of Bacterial vaginosis?

Uncertain

12

What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

Thin, watery, fishy smelling vaginal discharge

13

How do you diagnose bacterial vaginosis?

Raised vaginal pH >4.5

14

What is looked for in a laboratory sample of suspected bacterial vaginosis?

CLUE CELLS

15

What scoring system estimates the proportion of clue cells to epithelial cells and lactobacilli?

Hay-lyson scoring system

16

What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?

Metronidazole orally

17

What are the 3 classifications of Prostatitis?

1. Acute bacterial prostatitis
2. Chronic bacterial prostatitis
3. Chronic prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)

18

What are the organisms involved with acute bacterial prostatitis?

Same as a UTI, E.coli and other coliforms, enterococcus sp.
Always check for STI's

19

What is acute bacterial prostatitis?

A rare complication of a UTI in men

20

What are the symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis?

Symptoms of a UTI, may have lower abdo/back/perineal/penile pain
Tender prostate on examination

21

How is acute bacterial prostatitis diagnosed?

Clinical signs
MSSU for C&S
tests for STI's

22

What is the treatment for acute bacterial prostatitis?

Ciprofloxacin for 28 days
Trimethoprim for 28 days if high C.diff risk

23

Name 3 bacterial STI's

Chlamydia tachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)

24

Name 3 viral STI's

Human papilloma virus (genital warts)
Herpes simplex virus (Genital herpes)
Hepatitis and HIV

25

Name 3 parasitic STI's

Trichomonas vaginalis
Phthirus pubis (Pubic lice/crabs)
Scabies

26

What parts of the body does Chlamydia effect?

urethra
rectum
throat
eyes
endocervix

27

Describe Chlamydia trachomatis

Obligate intracellular bacteria with biphasic life cycle - "energy parasite"

28

What colour does Chlamydia trachomatis stain with gram stain?

It doesn't, no peptidoglycan in the cell wall

29

What are the 3 serological groupingsof Chlamydia trachomatis?

Serovars A-C = Trachoma (eye infection) (no an STI)
Serovars D-K = Genital infection
Serovars L1-L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum

30

What is the treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis?

Azithromycin (1g oral dose) for uncomplicated chlamydia