Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (65)
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Water (we would die without), Vitamins, Minerals
What are Macronutrients?
Nutrients that are needed by the body in large amounts, which give us energy
What is energy measured in for nutrients?
kcal, kilo-calories. Usually shortened to calories, which is just slang
What does a calorie measure?
The amount of energy needed to heat 1 kilo of water by 1° C
List 3 Macronutrients
Carbs, Protein, Lipids
How many kcal/g for each macronutrient?
Fat is 9kcal/g
Carbs and Protein are 4kcal/g
Alcohol is 7kcal/g
List 2 Micronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals
What's the difference between vitamins and minerals?
Vitamins are organic molecules our body needs to function, whereas minerals are inorganic molecules our bodies need to function
Why are minerals important?
They are involved in nerve pulses, oxygen transport, and the immune system
Is water a macro or micro nutrient? Why is it important?
Macro, because we need it in large amounts. It's needed for chemical reactions, cell growth, and lubrication
How much of our body weight is water?
What is a nutritious diet? List 4 facets.
Adequate, Moderated, Balanced, and Varied (BAM!V)
What is malnutrition?
The lack of needed nutrients or the excess of unneeded nutrients. Starvation, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition are examples
What is the regulated title for a nutrition expert?
Which organ is the major producer of enzymes
What are four things your digestive system does?
Motility (Breaking down food)
Elimination (getting rid of waste)
Barrier Function (preventing absorption of harmful stuff)
How does the body know it's hungry?
Through the gut-brain axis (stomach and intestines send signals to hypothalamus)
What are signs of hunger in the body?
Glucose levels change, hormones signal hunger. Pancreas excretes insulin (full) or glucagon (hungry)
What are enzymes?
Things made of proteins, they are biological catalysts that facilitate reactions in living things. Suffix ASE (amylase, peptidase)
What is a bolus?
A moist ball of food
What is peristalsis?
The waves of contractions in the esophagus that move the food (inner circular muscles and outer lengthwise muscles)
What is the "door" to the stomach?
The lower esophageal sphincter
What does food turn into in the stomach?
Chyme, a mixture of acid and food
What kind of acid is in the stomach?
What enzyme breaks down protein?
What hormone causes the secretion of gastric juice?
What role does mucus fill?
It protects your GI tract from acid, and helps food move
What is the order of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, then large intestine
What is the sphincter that is the exit of the stomach?