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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (65)
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1

What are the 6 classes of nutrients?

Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Water (we would die without), Vitamins, Minerals

2

What are Macronutrients?

Nutrients that are needed by the body in large amounts, which give us energy

3

What is energy measured in for nutrients?

kcal, kilo-calories. Usually shortened to calories, which is just slang

4

What does a calorie measure?

The amount of energy needed to heat 1 kilo of water by 1­­° C

5

List 3 Macronutrients

Carbs, Protein, Lipids

6

How many kcal/g for each macronutrient?

Fat is 9kcal/g
Carbs and Protein are 4kcal/g
Alcohol is 7kcal/g

7

List 2 Micronutrients

Vitamins and Minerals

8

What's the difference between vitamins and minerals?

Vitamins are organic molecules our body needs to function, whereas minerals are inorganic molecules our bodies need to function

9

Why are minerals important?

They are involved in nerve pulses, oxygen transport, and the immune system

10

Is water a macro or micro nutrient? Why is it important?

Macro, because we need it in large amounts. It's needed for chemical reactions, cell growth, and lubrication

11

How much of our body weight is water?

60%

12

What is a nutritious diet? List 4 facets.

Adequate, Moderated, Balanced, and Varied (BAM!V)

13

What is malnutrition?

The lack of needed nutrients or the excess of unneeded nutrients. Starvation, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition are examples

14

What is the regulated title for a nutrition expert?

A dietician

15

Which organ is the major producer of enzymes

The pancreas

16

What are four things your digestive system does?

Motility (Breaking down food)
Absorption (intestine->bloodstream)
Elimination (getting rid of waste)
Barrier Function (preventing absorption of harmful stuff)

17

How does the body know it's hungry?

Through the gut-brain axis (stomach and intestines send signals to hypothalamus)

18

What are signs of hunger in the body?

Glucose levels change, hormones signal hunger. Pancreas excretes insulin (full) or glucagon (hungry)

19

What are enzymes?

Things made of proteins, they are biological catalysts that facilitate reactions in living things. Suffix ASE (amylase, peptidase)

20

What is a bolus?

A moist ball of food

21

What is peristalsis?

The waves of contractions in the esophagus that move the food (inner circular muscles and outer lengthwise muscles)

22

What is the "door" to the stomach?

The lower esophageal sphincter

23

What does food turn into in the stomach?

Chyme, a mixture of acid and food

24

What kind of acid is in the stomach?

HCl

25

What enzyme breaks down protein?

Pepsin

26

What hormone causes the secretion of gastric juice?

Gastrin

27

What role does mucus fill?

It protects your GI tract from acid, and helps food move

28

What is the order of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, then large intestine

29

What is the sphincter that is the exit of the stomach?

Pyloric sphincter

30

Where is bile made and stored?

Made in the LIVER, stored in the GALLBLADDER, which then secrets it into the small intestine