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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (77):
1

What differentiates western music?

Notation and instrumentation

2

Century of Plato

4th BCE

3

Century of Aristotle

4th BCE

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Year of Pythagoras

Ca. 500 BCE

5

melos

word, scale, rhythm; sung poetry, greek drama

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ethos

ethical character; music has special power, character reflected in character of people

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harmonia

well-fittedness of things; principle governing structure of entire cosmos

8

seven liberal arts

grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy

9

Boethius years

480-524 CE

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De institutione musica

5 books of Boethius; translations; invention/history of music, doctrine of ethos; notation for vocal and instrumental; species of consonances

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3-part division of music

mundana (of cosmos); humana (relationship b/w body and soul; instrumentis (instrumental music)

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species

disposition (combination) of intervals within given segments of scale; there are 7; combinations of tones/semitones

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Pythagorean consonances

Diapason, Diapente, Diatessaron

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Diapason

octave

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Diapente

fifth

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Diatessaron

fourth

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tetrachords (what is)

4 pitches spanning a 4th

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4 types of tetrachords

diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic

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diatonic tetrachord

ST - T - T

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chromatic tetrachord

ST - ST - 3ST

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enharmonic tetrachord

1/4T - 1/4T - 2T

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Greater Perfect System

2 pairs of conjunct tetrachords w/ point of disjunction in middle; repetition of ST - T - T

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Lesser Perfect System

3 repetitions of ST - T - T, all conjunct

24

Immutable System

Overlapping of greater & lesser systems

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Order of the Mass

Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Gradual, Alleluia, Gospel, Homily, Credo, Offertory, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Communion, Ite missa est

26

Liturgical year

Advent (4 Sundays b/f), Christmas, Epiphany (12 days after), Septuagesima (70 days b/f), Lent (40 days b/f), Easter, Pentecost (50 days after)

27

Proper chant definition

Vary day to day throughout year

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List proper chants

Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory, Communion

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Ordinary chant definition

Remain same

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List ordinary chants

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus dei, Ite missa est

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Action chant definition

Accompanies an action during mass

32

Lesson chant definition

Sung b/w readings from bible

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List action chants

Introit, Offertory, Communion

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List lesson chants

Gradual, Alleluia

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antiphonal chant

two groups alternate singing; relatively simply style; neumatic

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responsorial chant

responds to reading; contemplation; melismatic; greater range than antiphonal

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Divine Office

8 prayers done throughout day

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Vespers

sundown prayer

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Matins

sunrise prayer

40

psalm tone

musical formula for psalms, framed by antiphons

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antiphon

music in relatively simple style

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differentia

end of psalm tone; transition to antiphon

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Lesser Doxology

reference to the Trinity

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tonary

list of chants classified by psalm tone and differentia

45

musica enchiriadis

anonymous music treatise of the 9th century; discussed notation, modes, monophonic plainchant, and polyphony

46

church modes

misunderstanding of Greek modes/species of octaves

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authentic mode

range extends up to 9th above final; reciting tone is 5th above

48

plagal mode

final lies in middle of range (5th above/below); reciting tone is 3rd below the tenor of authentic mode

49

alia musica

10th/11th century book; misunderstanding of Boethius; equated species of octave with mode

50

Guido d' Arezzo

ca. 1025; presented scale using hexachord, syllables like solfeg, and C/F clefs

51

Guidonian hand

Each part of hand corresponds to note, communicating tone for sight singing

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neume

notation symbol

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hymn

sung in honor of a god, poetic text, each strophe set to same melody

54

trope

newly composed melodies, with or without text, added to established chants, added as introduction or interpolation (in middle)

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sequence

long melismas added to end of alleluia; words eventually added by Nokter because they couldn't remember melodies. Became more poetic and repetitive eventually

56

liturgical drama

play based on Bible and Saint stories outside of mass

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Hildegard of Bingen

female composer of chant and dramas (1098-1179), leader of convent and had visions, composed ordo virtutum

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organum

polyphony occuring at diapason, diapente, and diatessaron, at first had parallel motion

59

compound organum

principle voice doubled 8va below, organal doubled 8ve above

60

Codex Calixtinus

polyphony manuscript for 2-3 voices; most are settings of Latin poetry to music

61

John Cotto and Ad organum faciendum

Present free organum

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Free organum

principal voice below organal voice, contrary motion favored, voice crossing allowed; 8ves, 5ths, and unisons at beginnings and ends of phrases

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new discant

upper voice has 3-5 notes per single note in lower voice

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new organum

upper voice has 5 or more notes per single note of lower voice (also called melismatic or sustained tone organum)

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Notre Dame polyphony

all voices move in measured rhythm

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Leoninus

"best composer of organum" accd. to Anon. IV; wrote magnus liber orgni

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Perotinus

"best composer of discant" accd. to Anon. IV

68

conductus

a piece to accompany a processional or some other movement during liturgy or during a liturgical drama

69

clausulae

section

70

duplum

upper voice in polyphony

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triplum

third voice in polyphony

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discantus

another name for duplum

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rhythmic modes

indicated by disposition of ligatures (notes bound together)

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breve

short note; one tempus

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long

long note; two tempora

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tempus

time unit

77

Mode chart

Protus, Deuterus, Tritus, Tetardus (Penguins Don't Teach Tambourine)