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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (353)
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1

1. What is responsible for the induction of PGF2α synthesis by the endometrium at the beginning of the luteolysis in the cow?
a) Bovine IFN-tau produced by the embryo.
b) Relaxin produced by the placenta.
c) Progesterone produced by the luteal cells. d​) Oxytocin produced by the luteal cells.

d​) Oxytocin produced by the luteal cells.

2

2. Indicate the incorrect statement
a) Different group of neurons are responsible for the tonic and pre-ovulatory-like GnRH release from the hypothalamus.
b) GnRH transported to the adenohypophysis via the portal plexus.
c) GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary.
d) Oxytocin is produced by the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.

c) GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary.

3

3. What does puberty mean in domestic animals?
a) Age for first breeding.
b​) Maturation of genital organs and start of cyclic sexual activity. c) Reaching the full body size and conformation.
d) Time of the first conception.

b​) Maturation of genital organs and start of cyclic sexual activity.

4

4. What is typical for the equine estrous cycle?
a) Polyoestrous species with 21-day-long cycles throughout the year. b) Polyoestrous species with 17-day-long cycles throughout the year. c) Seasonally polyoestrous long day breeder species.
d) Seasonally polyoestrous short day breeder species.

c) Seasonally polyoestrous long day breeder species.

5

5. What is the optimum time for insemination in cattle?
a) By the first clinical signs of heat.
b) At peak of the clinical heat symptoms.
c) Second half/last third of the heat.
d) 12-18 hours after the end of clinical signs of the estrous.

b) At peak of the clinical heat symptoms.

6

6. I​n the sow, the maternal recognition of pregnancy is based on the production of:
a) Progesterone
b) Pregnancy specific hormone B
c) Estradiol
d) Pregnancy associated glycoprotein

c) Estradiol

7

7. ​What is the time of ovulation in cattle?
a) At the first clinical sign of heat.
b) At the peak of clinical heat symptoms.
c) Second half/last third of the heat.
d) 12-18 hours after the end of clinical estrous signs.

c) Second half/last third of the heat.

8

8. Which statement is true regarding the hormonal background of cattle ovulation?
a) Ovulation takes place at maximal E2 level.
b) Ovulation takes place when the P4 level exceed 2ng/ml.
c) Ovulation is triggered by luteolysis levels of PGF2α.
d) Ovulation takes place 24-30 hours after the LH peak.

a) Ovulation takes place at maximal E2 level.

9

9. Which hormone elevation in the fetus is the very first signal inducing the parturition in bovine?
a) ACTH + Cortisol
b) PGF2α + Oxytocin
c) Estradiol + Progesterone d) Relaxin

a) ACTH + Cortisol

10

10. How many stages does the parturition have in the cow?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5

b) 3

11

11. One of the below statements concerning the induction of parturition in the cow is incorrect. Parturition can be induced with:
a) Relaxin
b) Corticosteroids
c) PGF2α and analogues
d) PGF2α and corticosteroid

a) Relaxin

12

12. How does a PGF2α treatment with therapeutic dose at the day after parturition act on the uterine contractility?
a) Enhances
b) Inhibits
c) Does not act on it
d) Enhances on the frequency of contractions but does not influence their intensity

c) Does not act on it

13

13. What characterizes uterine contractility of normo-calemic cows with retinal foetal membranes as related to healthy controls within 2 days post-partum?
a) Weaker
b) Same magnitude
c) Stronger
d) Total inactivity

a) Weaker

14

14. What would you use as first choice to treat puerperal paresis?
a) IM vitamin D
b) Diet rich in cations
c) PO calcium chloride
d) IV calcium gluconicum

d) IV calcium gluconicum

15

15.​ Indicate the correct statement:
a) Involution in dairy cow is always completely finished before the first ovulation.
b) Lochia in physiological conditions is a watery, brownish, foul smelling liquid.
c) Blood progesterone (P4) level is high during early involution
d) Size of the uterus is decreased to approx. its half within 10 days post-partum.
e) Following physiological calving, the uterus can be considered sterile.

d) Size of the uterus is decreased to approx. its half within 10 days post-partum.

16

16. Please choose the one of the bacterial species given below, which presence in the uterus on days 28-35 post-partum is linearly correlated with impaired reproduction performance later:
a) Escherichia coli
b) Streptococcus uberis
c) Prevotella bivia
d) Trueperella (Araconobacteriu,) pyogenes
e) Histophilus somni

d) Trueperella (Araconobacteriu,) pyogenes

17

17. Please evaluate the below statements about clinical examination of different forms of metritis. Indicate the correct statement:
a) One clinical examination upon transfer from calving unit to production group (i.1. 4-6 days post-partum) is enough.
b) General clinical examination, taking rectal temperature and observation of genitals provide good enough information for the diagnosis.
c) To establish the diagnosis of sub-clinical endometritis, ultrasonography is necessary.
d​) If no spontaneous shedding of discharge takes place, collection from the carnival orifice either manually or using appropriate tool is strongly advised.

d​) If no spontaneous shedding of discharge takes place, collection from the carnival orifice either manually or using appropriate tool is strongly advised.

18

18. How can the post-partial negative energy balance be prevented or decreased?
a) With maximal energy intake during the dry period.
b) By restricted feeding during the dry period, followed by ad libitum feeding with maximal energy content during lactation.
c) Maximal energy intake during the dry period and restricted feeding after calving.
d) Feeding only with energy-rich concentrate after calving.

b) By restricted feeding during the dry period, followed by ad libitum feeding with maximal energy content during lactation.

19

19. When does the estrous cycle reinitiate after parturition in dairy cows?
a) 23+/- 7 days
b) 42+/- 7 days
c) 70+/- 7 days

b) 42+/- 7 days

20

20. The order of hormonal treatments at the Co-Synch protocol?
a) GnRH + PGF2α + GnRH + AI
b) Progesterone + PGF2α
c) PGF2α + PGF2α

a) GnRH + PGF2α + GnRH + AI

21

21. For how many days the developing corpus luteum is not able to respond to prostaglandin treatment?
a) 6 days
b) 2 days
c)10 days
d) It is able to respond immediately.

a) 6 days

22

22. What does silent heat mean?
a) No clinical signs of heat.
b) No corpus luteum develops.
c) No follicle develops.
d) No sound is given by the animal.

a) No clinical signs of heat.

23

23. How can you diagnose an internal uterine torsion in cow?
a) Vaginal palpation
b) Vaginoscopy
c) Rectal palpation
d) Laparotomy

c) Rectal palpation

24

25. Which species is not polyoestrous?
a) Cat
b) Horse
c) Ruminant
d) Dog
e) Swine

d) Dog

25

27. Choose the proper answer for a fetus in (oblique) dorso-vertical presentation
a) Only Krey-Schottler’s double hook can be used during reposition.
b) The legs of the fetus are usually available.
c) We can use a Caemerer’s torsion fork for reposition.
d) We can try with halving the body of the fetus.

d) We can try with halving the body of the fetus.

26

28. At what stage does the differentiation of cells starts?
a) 4-8 cell stage
b) 2-4 cell stage
c) Fertilization
d) Blastocyct stage

d) Blastocyct stage

27

29. What type of placenta does cattle have?
a) Haemochorial discoid
b) Endotheliochorial diffuse
c) Endotheliochorial cotelydon
d) Epitheliochorial cotelydon

d) Epitheliochorial cotelydon

28

30. What is the fertile lifespan of spermatozoa in dogs? a) 9-11 days
b) 3-5 days
c) 13-15 days

a) 9-11 days

29

32. Does GnRH work successfully during deep anoestrous? a) Yes it generally works successfully
b) No we can not use it successfully

32. Does GnRH work successfully during deep anoestrous? a) Yes it generally works successfully
b) No we can not use it successfully

30

33. Which statement is correct?
a) In males both the tonic and the surge centre is found
b) In females only the tonic centre is found
c) In males there is only tonic centre, but no surge centre
d) Female reproductive organs originate from Wolfian
e) In males neither the tonic nor the surge center is found

c) In males there is only tonic centre, but no surge centre

31

34. What is the palpation finding of a follicle in bovine?
a) Fluctating
b) Flaccid
c) Elastic
d) Densed elastic

a) Fluctating

32

35. What structure in a cow can be described as: 20-25 cm long snake like, with the diameter and shape of a pencil point?
a) Uterine body
b) Uterine horn
c) Oviduct?
d) Cervix ?

c) Oviduct?
d) Cervix ?

33

36. When should allowed force extraction not be used?
a) Relatively large foetus
b) Live foetus
c) Dead foetus
d) Dorso-vertical presentation

a) Relatively large foetus
b) Live foetus

34

36. When should allowed force extraction not be used?
a) Relatively large foetus
b) Live foetus
c) Dead foetus
d) Dorso-vertical presentation

a) Relatively large foetus
b) Live foetus

35

37. Choose the only one incorrect statement during the Götze-method of total fetotomy: -
a) We use a diagonal backrunning cut for the thorax
b) We cut the head and the neck
c) We cut the pelvis between the legs
d) Evisceration

a) We use a diagonal backrunning cut for the thorax

36

39. What can be used to fix lateral head deviation?
a) Saake snare
b) Gagny loop
c) ostertag eyehook
d) Manually by hand only

b) Gagny loop

37

42. How can be prevent the worst effects of NEB?
a) Feeding only high energy concentrate after calving
b) Restricting the feeding during the dry period, and feeding high energy feed during lactation
c) Feed large quantity of high energy food during dry period

b) Restricting the feeding during the dry period, and feeding high energy feed during lactation

38

43. Which one is not part of the abnormal forelimb postures?
a) Shoulder flexion
b) Incomplete elbow extension
c) Head-breast posture
d) Carpal flexion

c) Head-breast posture

39

43. Which one is not part of the abnormal forelimb postures?
a) Shoulder flexion
b) Incomplete elbow extension
c) Head-breast posture
d) Carpal flexion

c) Head-breast posture

40

46. When is methyl cellulose used in calving?
a) To open birth canal
b) If lubricant is needed
c) If fluid therapy is necessary

b) If lubricant is needed

41

47. Which is incorrect for primary follicle?
a) Produces inhibin and estrogen
b) Primary follicles can produce 17 beta-estradiol and inhibin

b) Primary follicles can produce 17 beta-estradiol and inhibin

42

48. When is the foetal membranes expelled?
a) At stage 1
b) At stage 2
c) At stage 3
d) Together with foetus

c) At stage 3

43

49. Which is a reflex ovulator?

a) Cat

44

50. What is puberty?
a) When the animal has reached adult body weight
b) When the animal has mature sexual organs and starts cycling
c) First calving

b) When the animal has mature sexual organs and starts cycling

45

50. What is puberty?
a) When the animal has reached adult body weight
b) When the animal has mature sexual organs and starts cycling
c) First calving

b) When the animal has mature sexual organs and starts cycling

46

53. Maternal recognition in pigs:

a) Estradiol

47

54. How can you diagnose internal uterine torsion in a cow?

a) By rectal palpation

48

55. What is the optimum time for insemination in the cattle?

a) Second half / Last third of heat

49

55. What is the optimum time for insemination in the cattle?

a) Second half / Last third of heat

50

57. What is the time of ovulation in cattle?

a) 10-11 hours after END of estrus

51

58. Which hormone level in the foetus is the first signal inducing parturition?

a) ACTH + Cortisol

52

59. One of the below statements concerning induction of parturition in the cow is incorrect. Parturition can be induced with:

a) Relaxin

53

60. What characterizes uterine contractility of normocalcemic cows with RFM as related to healthy controls within 2 days PP?

a) Weaker

54

61. What does silent heat mean?

a) No clinical signs of heat

55

10) Indicate the incorrect
a) In rabbit and ruminants the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration may be suitable to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak.
b) The hCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak in most of the species
c) In dog and pig the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually not reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak
d) In horse the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak
e) If we need FSH like effect, eCG containing preparation should be administered.

d) In horse the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak

56

11) Indicate the incorrect
a) Primordial follicles consist of ca. 30 flat granulose cells plus the oocyte, and surrounded by basal membrane
b) The size of primordial follicles is ca. 30-50 micrometer in diameter
c) Primary follicles consist of ca. 30-60 cuboidal granulose cells plus the oocyte.
d) Primary follicles need some local growth factors for their further differentiation
e) Primary follicles can produce 17 B estradiol and inhibin

e) Primary follicles can produce 17 B estradiol and inhibin

57

12) Indicate which statement related to the antral (tertiary) …… follicles is correct
a) The theca interna cells can produce 17 B estradiol and inhibin
b) The granulose cells need inhibin for 17 B estradiol production
c) The IGF-1 and insulin content of the follicular fluid increases the 17 B estradiol producing aromatase activity of granulose cells.
d) The granulose cells need progesterone for the 17 B estradiol production
e) The theca interna cells need cortisol for 17 B estradiol production

c) The IGF-1 and insulin content of the follicular fluid increases the 17 B estradiol producing aromatase activity of granulose cells.

58

13) Indicate the statement related to the estrus …. Is correct
a) During the estrus the quality of cervical discharge is grayish and sticky
b) At the beginning of the estrus cows tease the others, but at that time they are noe really sexually receptive
c) During the estrus the toricity? Of the myometrium is decreased
d) In cows the preovulatory follicle can be palpated rectally, as a smooth surfaced, spherically, tightly, softly fluctuation structure, <10mm in diameter
e) During the estrus the ion (Na and CL) content of the vaginal discharge decreases

b) At the beginning of the estrus cows tease the others, but at that time they are noe really sexually receptive

59

14) Indicate which statement related to the various pathogens of bovine mastitis is incorrect
a) Str. Cuberis is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens.
b) Str. Dysgalactiae is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens although occasionally it can also be transferred from cow to cow.
c) corynebacterium bovis is one of the contagious mastitis pathogens.
d) E. coli is one of the contagious mastitis pathogens.
e) The capsule producing ability is as important characteristic of mastitis …. …. Strains.

b) Str. Dysgalactiae is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens although occasionally it can also be transferred from cow to cow.

60

15) Indicate which one is related to the somatic cell count of the milk is incorrect
a) The SCC of the milk can be estimated also with California mastitis test
b) The SCC of the milk can increase if samples are stored above +4 degree C
c) The SCC of the milk is usually slightly higher at the end than at the beginning of the milking procedure
d) The SCC of the milk is more elevated at the end than during the peak lactation.
e) In corynebacterium bovis infected quarters the SCC may be normal.

b) The SCC of the milk can increase if samples are stored above +4 degree C

61

1) Indicate the incorrect
a) The GnRH producing nuclei are located in the anterior pituitary
b) the oxytocin producing nuclei are located in the hypothalamus
c) Both the surge center and pulse center producing GnRH are located in the hypothalamus
d) GnRH is transported to the hypophyseal stalk on a perineureal way
e) Oxytocin is transported to the posterior pituitary gland on a perineureal way

a) The GnRH producing nuclei are located in the anterior pituitary

62

2) Indicate the incorrect
a) Melatonin is produced in the corpus pineale
b) The daily melatonin pattern has an obvious circadian rhythm
c) The plasma level of melatonin decreases in daylight and increases in the dark period.
d) Cyclic ovarian function can be induced with melatonin administration in ewes out of the breeding season.
e) In mares the long periods of daily melatonin increases the cyclic ovarian activity

e) In mares the long periods of daily melatonin increases the cyclic ovarian activity

63

3) Indicate the incorrect
a) The GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus must have an estradiol signal for GnRH release.
b) The GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus is active in males of seasonal breeder species during the breeding season.
c) The GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus is active in females of seasonal breeder species during breeding season.
d) The GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus is estradiol sensitive in females of seasonal breeder species during breeder season.
e) At the time of puberty the GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus becomes estradiol sensitive in females of seasonal breeder species during breeder season.

b) The GnRH producing surge center of the hypothalamus is active in males of seasonal breeder species during the breeding season.

64

4) Indicate the incorrect
a) GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary
b) The hypophyseal vessels transporting the GnRH from a portal system.
c) In the hypothalamus separated nuclei are responsible for the tonic and preovulatory-like GnRH release.
d) The pulse frequency of the tonic GnRH release is suppressed by progesterone.
e) The preovulatory-like GnRH release s triggered by 17 B estradiol.

a) GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary

65

5) Indicate the incorrect
a) The protein chains of gonadotrop hormones consist of two (a and b) subunits.
b) eCG is the recent synonym of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)
c) All gonadotrop hormones contain also significant quantity of carbohydrates.
d) The correct order of gonadotrops in increased molecular weight: LH/hCG/FSH/eCG
e) The molecular weight of LH is smaller than that of FSH

d) The correct order of gonadotrops in increased molecular weight: LH/hCG/FSH/eCG

66

6) Indicate the incorrect
a) The molecular weight of FSH is smaller than that of hCG.
b) The LH may be filtrated via the urine.
c) The FSH may be filtrated via urine
d) The hCG may be filtrated via urine
e) The eCG may be filtrated vi urine

e) The eCG may be filtrated vi urine

67

7) Indicate the incorrect
a) The biological half-life of FSH is ca. 120 min.
b) The biological half-life of LH is 20-30 min
c) The biological half-life of hCG is ca. 120 min
d) the biological half-life of LH is shorter than that of FSH
e) The biological half-life of eCG is ca. 26 hours.

c) The biological half-life of hCG is ca. 120 min

68

8) Indicate the incorrect
a) In mare the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 3-5h
b) In rabbit the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 6-8h
c) In ruminants the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 6-8h
d) In dog the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 24h
e) In pig the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 24h

a) In mare the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is ca. 3-5h

69

9) Indicate the incorrect
a) The dog ovulates ca. 24-48 (<72) hours after the preovulatory LH peak
b) The mare ovulates in the latest hours of the preovulatory LH peak (although the duration of The preovultory LH elevation is unusually long)
c) The ewe and goat ovulates in the latest hours of the preovulatory LH peak
d) The pig ovulates ca. 40 hours after the onset of the preovulatory LH peak
e) the cow ovulated about 24-48 hours after the preovulatory LH peak

b) The mare ovulates in the latest hours of the preovulatory LH peak (although the duration of The preovultory LH elevation is unusually long)

70

Choose the only false statement concerning to the contraindication of the Caesarean section in the cow:
 Caesarean section is contraindicated in case of the long lasting operation which is diagnosed by the present calving difficulties.
 Bad condition of the mother.
 Extended damage of the genital organs.
 Severe foetal emphysema.
 Endotoxin shock.

- Caesarean section is contraindicated in case of the long lasting operation which is diagnosed by the present calving difficulties.

71

Choose the only correct statement concerning to the anaesthesia during the Caesarean section on the cow:

Kalschmiot anaesthesia is used only in standing position.

72

One or more of the below statements related to the antral (tercier or Graafian) follicles is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them:
 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 5-10 mm.
 In mares, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 20-25 mm.
 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm.
 When the antral follicle becomes gonadotroph sensitive, its size it about 2.0 – 2.5 mm in sheep and 3.0 – 4.0 mm in cattle.
 In mares, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm (sometimes larger).

 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 5-10 mm.
 In mares, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 20-25 mm.
 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm.

73

One or more of the below statements related to the estrus cow is/are incorrect. Please
indicate it/them:
 In cows, the pre-ovulatory follicle can be palpated rectally, as a smooth-surfaced spherical, tightly, softly fluctuating structure, 10-20mm in diameter.
 During the oestrus the cervix is open, and the cervical discharge is transparent, with egg white- like consistency.
 During the oestrus the tonicity of the myometrium is increased, so the uterus is derogated.
 At the beginning of the oestrus, the cow tolerates the teasing of others, and later she starts to
tease her mates.
 During the oestrus the electric conductivity of the vaginal discharge decreases.

 During the oestrus the electric conductivity of the vaginal discharge decreases.

74

One or more of the below statements related to the uterus is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them:
 Oxytocin and 17-Beta-Estardiol increase the tonicity of the myometrium.
 Inhibin relaxes the tonicity of myometrium
 The luteolytic PGF2α is synthesized in the endometrium.
 The type of bovine uterus is ‘uterus bicornis non-subseptus
 The type of equine uterus is ‘uterus bicornis non-subseptus’.

 Inhibin relaxes the tonicity of myometrium
 The type of bovine uterus is ‘uterus bicornis non-subseptus

75

One or more of the below statements related to the ovulation is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them:
 The spontaneously ovulating domestic mammals: Ruminants, horse, pig, dog.
 In spontaneous ovulators the 17-Beta-estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only pre- requisite for the formation of pre-ovulatory LH peak.
 Domestic mammals with induced (reflex) ovulation: Cat, ferret, camel.
 In induced (reflex) ovulators, the 17-Beta-estradiol induces estrus signs and predispose for ovulation, but the pre-ovulatory LH peak is triggered by the vaginal insult of mating/intromission plus the mating behaviour.

 In spontaneous ovulators the 17-Beta-estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only pre- requisite for the formation of pre-ovulatory LH peak.

76

One or more of the below statements related to the development and function of corpus luteum is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them:
 In a cow or mare about 8-10 days after the ovulation about 80% of the total quantity of progesterone is produced by the small luteal cells.
 During the formation of luteal tissue (luteinisation) the theca interna cells develop to small luteal cells, whereas the granulose cells differentiate directly to large luteal cells.
 In a cow about 8-10 days after the ovulation the corpus luteum is about 15-20 mm in diameter, and in most of the cases it is well-recognized by rectal palpation.
 The small luteal cells may have a further differentiation to large luteal cells.
 In a mare about 8-10 days after the ovulation, the corpus luteum is about 15-20 mm in diameter,
and in most cases it is well recognized by rectal palpation.

 In a cow or mare about 8-10 days after the ovulation about 80% of the total quantity of progesterone is produced by the small luteal cells.
 In a cow about 8-10 days after the ovulation the corpus luteum is about 15-20 mm in diameter, and in most of the cases it is well-recognized by rectal palpation.

77

You have a synchronized group of ewes and you have to inseminate them with fresh semen during the breeding season. What is the right time to inseminate them with vaginal insemination technique?

50 hours after sponge removal

78

How long is the estrus cycle in the ewe (in days)?

17 days

79

How long is the estrus in the ewe (in hours)?

24-36 hours

80

How long is the lifespan of the corpus luteum in the goat (in days)?

16 days

81

Choose the correct answer:

The sheep / goat is a seasonally poly-estrus animal.

82

Choose the right answer:

The physiologic events leading to puberty are analogous to those regulating the onset of the breeding season.

83

Choose the right answer connected to the source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance:

Until Day 50 of pregnancy, the sheep is a carpus luteum dependant animal after which the placenta takes over this task.

84

You have to use frozen ram semen for artificial insemination ewe. Choose the right insemination technique:

Laparoscopic

85

You have to use fresh diluted ram semen for artificial insemination in ewe. Choose the right insemination technique:

Vaginal

86

You want to synchronize the estrous cycle of a group of ewes with progestogen sponge during breeding season. How long do you have to keep the sponges in the vaginas?

14 days

87

What is the difference between the treatment protocols of estrous synchronisation and estrous induction?

Estrous induction is used in non-breeding season. The treatment with progestogen is combined with gonadotroph hormone (ECG / PMSG).

88

Insemination technique not used in small ruminants:
 Vaginal
 Cervical
 Rectovaginal
 Laparoscopic
 Transvaginal

Rectovaginal

89

What is the typical concentration of spermatozoa required for vaginal insemination in ewe?

400 x 105

90

What is the typical concentration of spermatozoa required for intra-uterine laparoscopic insemination in ewe?

20x105

91

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The oxytocin producing nuclei are located in the hypothalamus.
 Both the surge center and the pulse center producing GnRH are located in the hypothalamus.
 The GnRH producing nuclei are located in the anterior pituitary.
 GnRH is transported to the hypophyseal stalk in a perineural way.
 Oxytocin is transported to the posterior pituitary gland in a perineural way.

 The GnRH producing nuclei are located in the anterior pituitary.

92

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 Melatonin is produced by the corpus pineale.
 The daily melatonin pattern has an obvious circadian rhythm.
 The plasma level of melatonin decreases in daylight and increases in the dark period.
 Cyclic ovarian function ca be induced with melatonin administration in ewes out of breeding
season.
 In mares, the long periods of daily melatonin increase, increases the cyclic ovarian activity.

 In mares, the long periods of daily melatonin increase, increases the cyclic ovarian activity.

93

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus must have an estradiol signal for GnRH release.
 The GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus is active in females of seasonal breeder species during breeding season.
 At the time of puberty, the GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus becomes estradiol-sensitive in females of seasonal breeder species.
 The GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus may be active in males of seasonal breeder species during breeding season.
 The GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus is estradiol sensitive in female of seasonal breeder species during the breeding season.

 The GnRH-producing surge center of the hypothalamus may be active in males of seasonal breeder species during breeding season.

94

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The hypophyseal vessels transporting the GnRH from a portal system.
 In the hypothalamus, separated nuclei are responsible for tonic and pre-ovulatory-like GnRH
release.
 The pulse frequency of the tonic GnRH release is supressed by progesterone.
 The preovulatory-like GnRH release is triggered by 17β-estradiol.
 GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary.

GnRH is produced in the anterior pituitary.

95

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The correct order of gonadotroph in increasing molecular weight: LH / Hcg / FSH / Ecg
 The protein chains of gonadotroph hormones consists of two separate (α and β) sub-units.
 Ecg is the recent synonym of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG).
 All gonadotroph hormones contain also significant quantity of carbohydrates (for example; sialic
acid).
 The molecular weight of LH is smaller than that of FSH.

 The correct order of gonadotroph in increasing molecular weight: LH / Hcg / FSH / Ecg

96

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The molecular weight of FSH is smaller than that of HCG.
 The HCG may be filtered via the urine.
 The LH may be filtrated via the urine.
 The FSH may be filtrated via the urine.
 The ECG may be filtrated via the urine.

 The HCG may be filtered via the urine.

97

Please indicate the incorrect statement:
 The biological half-life of HCG is approx.120 mins.
 The biological half-life of FSH is approx. 120 mins.
 The biological half-life of LH is < 20-30 mins.
 The biological half-life of LH is shorter than that of FSH.  The biological half-life of ECG is approx. 26 hours.

 The biological half-life of HCG is approx.120 mins.

98

Please indicate the incorrect statement:

 In rabbit the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In ruminants the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In dog the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 24 hours.
 In mare, the duration of pre-ovulatory –like LH peak is about 3-5 hours.
 In pig the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 24 hours.

 In mare, the duration of pre-ovulatory –like LH peak is about 3-5 hours.

99

Please indicate the incorrect statement.
 In rabbit and ruminants the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration may be suitable to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak.
 The hCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak in most of the species.
 In dog and pig the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually not reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak.
 If we need FSH-like effect, eCG containing preparations should be administered.
 In horse the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak.

 In horse the LH release challenged by a GnRH administration, as a single method, is usually reliable enough to mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak.

100

Please indicate the incorrect statement.
 Primordial follicles consist of about 30 flat granulosa cells the oocyte and surrounded by basal membrane.
 The size of primordial follicles is about 30-50 um in diameter.
 Primary follicles can produce 17beta-estradiol and inhibin.
 Primary follicles consist of about 30-60 cuboidal granulose cells plus the oocyte.
 Primary follicles need some local growth factors for their further differentiation.

 Primary follicles can produce 17beta-estradiol and inhibin.

101

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the antral (tertiary/Graafian) follicles, is incorrect.
 The wall of antral follicles consists of multiple layer of granulose cells, basement membrane, furthermore theca interna and externa cells.
 The cells of theca interna have, but the granulosa cells do not have direct connection with the capillary network.
 The cells of the theca interna are capable of cholesterol intake directly from the capillary network.
 Also the granulosa cells produce steroid hormones.
 The granulosa cells are capable of cholesterol intake directly from the follicular fluid.

 The granulosa cells are capable of cholesterol intake directly from the follicular fluid.

102

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the antral (tertiary/Graafian) follicles, is correct.

The granulosa cells can produce 17beta-estradiol and inhibin.

103

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the antral (tertiary/Graafian) follicles, is correct.

The theca interna cells can produce 17beta-estradiol and inhibin.

104

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the estrus in cow is correct.

In cows the preovulatory follicle can be palpated rectally, as a smooth-surfaced, spherical, tightly -> softly fluctuating structure, <10 mm in diameter.
During the estrus the ion (Na+ and Cl-) content of the vaginal discharge decreases.

105

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the uterus is incorrect.
 Oxytocin and 17beta-estradiol increase the tonicity of myometrium.
 Inhibin decreases the tonicity of myometrium.
 The luteolytic PGF2alpha is synthesized in the endometrium.
 The type of the bovine uterus is “Uterus bicornis subseptus”.
 The type of equine uterus is “Uterus bicornis non-subseptus”.

 Inhibin decreases the tonicity of myometrium.

106

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the ovulation is incorrect.
 The spontaneously ovulating domestic mammals: ruminants, horse, pig, dog
 Domestic mammals with induced ovulation: Cat, ferret, camel
 In spontaneous ovulators the preovulatory LH peak is triggered by the 17beta-estradiol
production of the dominant follicle.
 In spontaneous ovulators the 17beta-estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only prerequisite of the formation of preovulatory LH peak.
 In induced ovulators the 17beta-estradiol induces estrous signs and predispose for ovulation,
but the preovulatory LH peak is triggered by the vaginal insult of mating/intromission plus the mating behaviour.

 In spontaneous ovulators the 17beta-estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only prerequisite of the formation of preovulatory LH peak.

107

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the development and function of corpus luteum, is incorrect.
 During the formation of luteal tissue the theca interna cells develop to small luteal cells, whereas the granulosa cells differentiate directly to large luteal cells.
 The small luteal cells may have a further differentiation to large luteal cells.
 In a cow or mare about 8-10 days after the ovulation about 80% of the total quantity of progesterone is produced by the large luteal cells.
 The corpus luteum can never been palpated rectally in cattle.
 In a cow about 8-10 days after the ovulation the corpus luteum is about 15-20 mm in diameter,
and in most of the cases it is well-recognized by rectal palpation.

 In a cow or mare about 8-10 days after the ovulation about 80% of the total quantity of progesterone is produced by the large luteal cells.

108

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the luteolytic process of corpus luteum, is incorrect.
 The PGF2alpha produced by the endometrium is the known main luteolytic agent in most of the domestic mammals.
 Oxytocin is involved in the regulation of endometrial PGF2alpha release.
 In ruminants there is a local utero-ovarian vascular couter-current diffusion system transporting the endometrial PGF2alpha into the corpus luteum. According to this mechanism the incidence of corpus luteum persistency is relatively seldom malfunction.
 Administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the endometrial and inflammatory production of PGF2alpha.
 Certain quantity of PGF2alpha is produced also in the inflammatory processes.

 Administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the endometrial and inflammatory production of PGF2alpha.

109

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the luteolytic process of corpus luteum, is incorrect.
 In ruminants the corpus luteum becomes PGF2alpha-sensitive 4 days after the ovulation.  In mares the corpus luteum becomes PGF2alpha-sensitive 5 days after the ovulation.
 Luteolysis is the apoptotic degeneration of luteal cells.
 In pig the corpus luteum becomes PGF2alpha-sensitive 5 days after the ovulation.

 Most of the luteolytic effects of PGF2alpha are directed to the large luteal cells.

 In pig the corpus luteum becomes PGF2alpha-sensitive 5 days after the ovulation.

110

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the wave like development of gonadotroph sensitive follicles is incorrect.
 In cattle there are usually 2-3 waves in growth of follicles per cycle.
 In pig there are usually 3-4 waves in growth of follicles per cycles.
 In sheep there are usually 3-4 waves in growth of follicles in most of the cycles, however, the individual variability is important.
 In mares there is only 1 (or perhaps 2) wave(s) in growth of follicles per cycle.
 In goat there are usually 3-5 waves in growth of follicles per cycle.

 In pig there are usually 3-4 waves in growth of follicles per cycles.

111

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the fertilization and early embryonic development is incorrect.
 The pre-conception aging of oocyte predisposes for polyspermy.
 At ovulation the oocyte is in the metaphase of the 2nd meiotic cell division.
 After fertilization the main function of the zona reaction is to prevent the penetration of further
spermatozoa.
 The bovine embryo enters from the oviduct to the uterine horn as an early blastocyst 7 days after
the conception.
 The bovine embryo hatches from the zona pellucida on day 8-9 after conception.

 The pre-conception aging of oocyte predisposes for polyspermy.

112

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the maternal recognition of pregnancy is incorrect.
 Some hours after hatching from the zona pellucida the ruminant and porcine embryos start an intensive longitudinal growth (elongation)
 In ruminants the embryonic signal of maternal recognition of pregnancy is a protein belonging to the interferon family (interferon-1)
 In pig the embryonic signal in maternal recognition of pregnancy is estrogenic-based.
 Some hours after hatching from the zone pellucida the equine embryo starts an intensive longitudinal growth. (elongation)
 In mares the embryonic signal of maternal recognition of pregnancy is a protein, however its
effect is combined/completed also with some oestrogens of embryonic origin.

 Some hours after hatching from the zone pellucida the equine embryo starts an intensive longitudinal growth. (elongation)

113

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the various pathogens of bovine mastitis, is incorrect.
 Str. uberis is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens.
 Corynebacterium bovis is one of the contagious mastitis pathogens.
 E.coli is one of the contagious mastitis pathogens.
 The capsule-producing ability is an important characteristic of mastitis-pathogen S.ausreus
strains.
 Str. dysgalactiae is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens, although occasionally it can also be transferred from cow to cow.

 Str. dysgalactiae is one of the environmental mastitis pathogens, although occasionally it can also be transferred from cow to cow.

114

Please indicate, what of the below statements related to the somatic cell count of the milk, is incorrect.
 The SCC of the milk can be estimated also with California Mastitis Test.
 The SCC of the milk is usually slightly higher at the end than at the beginning of the milking
procedure.
 The SCC of the milk is more elevated at the end than during the peak lactation.
 In Corynebacterium bovis infected quarters the SCC may be normal.
 The SCC of the milk can increase if samples are stored above +4 °C

 The SCC of the milk can increase if samples are stored above +4 °C

115

Which sign is not characteristic for starting a delivery?
 Vulva-oedema
 Udder oedema and colostrum secretion
 Labour pains.
 Foul-smelling discharge from the vagina

 Foul-smelling discharge from the vagina

116

Which species has a refracted broken final part of the soft birth canal?

Dog

117

Which of these pain types is responsible for the expulsion of the placenta?

After pains

118

How can you diagnose an internal uterine torsion in a cow?

By rectal palpation

119

What is the rectal palpation finding of a bovine corpus luteum?

Liver-like

120

Please indicate the incorrect statement. The case history in a parturient animal is not suitable for:
 Helping the veterinarian to set up a correct diagnosis
 Proving, whether anybody else a previous examination been performed
 Giving a correct diagnosis (as a single method), which has been set up by the owner/farmer
 To get information about the length of the recent pregnancy

 Giving a correct diagnosis (as a single method), which has been set up by the owner/farmer

121

Which two diameters are important to determine the type of the pelvis?

Conjugata vera & Diameter transvers aperturae pelvis cranialis intermedia

122

Please, indicate the incorrect statement. The possibilities of solving the uterine torsion in cows.
 Manual reposition through the vagina
 Rotation of the cow’s body (the wooden plank method)
 Laparoscopy
 Caesarean section

 Laparoscopy

123

Which term is incorrect?
 Dorsal (upright) position
 Foot-nape posture
 Vertical presentation
 Dorsal transverse position

 Dorsal transverse position

124

Which statement is true?

The lack of eye and suckling reflexes do not obviously mean that the foetus has died

125

Which is not an abnormal presentation?
 Double sided hip flexion of a small calf foetus
 Normal presentation - Ventral position of a foal foetus during the second trimester of pregnancy
 Harms dog sitting position
 Shoulder flexion of a piglet

 Normal presentation - Ventral position of a foal foetus during the second trimester of pregnancy

126

Please mark the inappropriate statement.
 (Oblique) ventro vertical presentation is also called as two horn pregnancy.
 The ventral surfaces of the hoofs are looking laterally.
 The most frequently occurring abnormal posture of the head is its lateral deviation:
 The back of the foetus might be palpated in the birth canal during dorso transverse presentation

 (Oblique) ventro vertical presentation is also called as two horn pregnancy.

127

Please mark the synonym for Harm’s dog sitting position.

Ventro-vertical presentation

128

Which statement is not correct?
 The posterior presentation is abnormal
 Ventral position of a foetus during the expulsive stage is abnormal
 Anterior presentation is normal
 Foot-nape posture is the milder (less severe) form of the downward displacement of the head,
during this, the two front-legs are in the pelvic cavity, and the skull is pushed to the pecten.

 The posterior presentation is abnormal

129

Which statement is not correct?
 During a longitudinal posterior presentation, the flexion direction of the fetlock is opposite to that of the first joint proximal to it.
 There is a bony knob on the second joint proximal to the fetlock on the hind legs
 The plantar surfaces of the hoofs/claws are facing upwards if the position is dorsal
 In posterior presentation, the flexion direction of the metatarsophalangeal joint is the same as
that of the second joint proximal to it.

 There is a bony knob on the second joint proximal to the fetlock on the hind legs

130

Which of these is a double monster?

Diprosopus

131

Which monster type does not have an enlarged diameter of the head?
 Hydrocephalus internus
 Amorphus globosus
 Hydrocephalokele
 Hydrocephalus externus

 Amorphus globosus

132

Which statement characterizes the amniotic fluid?

Egg-yolk-like consistency

133

What is methylcellulose?

The main component of modern lubricants

134

In which case do we have to apply a test traction in the cow?

Relative large foetus

135

The following statement is true for the allowed forced extraction:

3 to 4 medium power persons alternatingly pull the obstetrical chains/ropes, which have been fixed to the legs and head of the foetus

136

Please mark the right statement.

Episiotomy has to be performed along the medial line between the vulva and the anal ring in bitches (episiotomia media)

137

When would you perform an episiotomy in the cow?

If only the last critical part of the soft birth canal is narrow and the foetus could pass the pony part and the cervix.

138

Please mark the right statement.
In postpartum suckling beef cows the formation of preovulatory-like LH release is under a beta-endorphin blockade

For at least 3545 days after calving

139

Please mark the right statement.
In postpartum suckling beef cows the time of first postpartum ovulation is influenced by the:

Body condition at calving, rather than the postpartum body condition loss

140

Please mark the right statement.
In postpartum (non-suckling) dairy cows:

The GnRh -> FSH + LH release is under a complete beta-endorphin blockade for max. 5 days after calving

141

Please mark the right statement.
On day 28 after calving your cow has abundant, mucopurulent cervical discharge (estimated pus content: > 60%) and the diameter of cervix at the external orifice is about 8 cm. What is your diagnosis?

Clinical endometritis

142

Please mark the incorrect statement.
In postpartum cows the most important predisposing factors for puerperal metritis:
 Calving on a pasture land
 Retained fatal membranes
 At calving: (unhygienic) manual assistance within the birth canal
 At and just after calving: elevated levels of blood ketone

 Calving on a pasture land

143

Please mark the incorrect statement.
In therapy of puerperal metritis
 The local administration of first generation cephalosporin (Cephapirin) is the most proper way antimicrobial therapy.
 The intrauterine administration of Oxyteteracycline is the most traditional (but currently less effective) antimicrobial therapy.
 Due to the less sensitive character of the most uterine pathogens the dose of Oxyteteracycline is about 2-4 g/animal currently.
 It would be better not to use the high-dose (2-4 g/animal) intrauterine Oxyteteracycline administration.

 The local administration of first generation cephalosporin (Cephapirin) is the most proper way antimicrobial therapy.

144

Please mark the right statement.
The proper technique for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in cattle:

Week 8-9 after calving or later: cytology of smear samples taken from the surface of the endometrium with cytobrush technique or small volume lavage.

145

Please mark, which of the below mastitis pathogens has minimal chance to survive in the mammary gland during the dry period.

E.coli

146

Please mark, which of the below mastitis pathogens has minimal chance for adherence on the epithelial cells during the inframammary invasion:

Staph. Aureus

147

One or more of the below statements related to the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them.
 The nucleus supraopticus can produce GnRH.
 The GnRH producing nuclei of hypothalamus are located in the ventrolateral wall of the third ventricle.
 The nucleus arcuatus can produce oxytocin.
 The nucleus paraventricularis can produce oxytocin.
 The producer neurons transport the GnRH trough their axons to the superior hypophyseal
arteries located in the stalk of the pituitary.

 The nucleus arcuatus can produce oxytocin.
 The nucleus supraopticus can produce GnRH.

148

One or more of the below statements related to the gonadotroph hormones is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them.
 eCG is the recent synonym of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.
 The correct order of gonadotroph in increasing molecular weight: LH/hCG/FSH/eCG
 The correct order of gonadotroph in increasing carbohydrate (sialic acid) content of their
molecules: FSH/eCG/LH/hCG
 The correct order of gonadotroph in increasing biological half-life: eCG/LH/hCG/FSH
 The protein chains of gonadotroph hormones consist of two separate (alpha & beta) subunits.

 The protein chains of gonadotroph hormones consist of two separate (alpha & beta) subunits.

149

One or more of the below statements related to the gonadotroph hormones is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them.
 The biological half-life of LH is <20-30 min
 The biological half-life of hCG is approx. 120 min
 The biological half-life of FSH is approx. 120 min
 The biological half-life of eCG is approx. 11 hours
 The biological half-life of FSH is <20-30 min

 The biological half-life of LH is <20-30 min
 The biological half-life of hCG is approx. 120 min
 The biological half-life of FSH is approx. 120 min
 The biological half-life of eCG is approx. 11 hours

150

One or more of the below statements related to the gonadotroph hormones is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them.
 In mare the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In rabbit the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In ruminants the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In dog the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In pig the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.

 In mare the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In dog the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.
 In pig the duration of preovulatory-like LH peak is about 6-8 hours.

151

One or more of the below statements related to the gonadotroph hormones is/are incorrect.
Please indicate it/them.
 In cyclic females the pulse frequency of the tonic LH release is suppressed by 17beta-estradiol.
 The hCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of tonic Lh release in females.
 The pulse frequency of the tonic LH release is suppressed by progesterone.
 The eCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of tonic LH release in females.
 The eCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak in
females.

 In cyclic females the pulse frequency of the tonic LH release is suppressed by 17beta-estradiol.
 The eCG administration can mimic/induce the biological effects of preovulatory LH peak in
females.

152

One or more of the below statements related to the secondary follicles is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them.
 The granulose cells in a secondary follicle have a multi-layer character.
 In cattle the number of secondary follicles can be identified with rectal palpation.
 Regardless of the species the size of secondary follicles is about 200-300 um in diameter.
 In mares the secondary follicles can be identified only with trans rectal ultrasonography.
 The size of secondary follicles is larger in mares than in cows.

 In cattle the number of secondary follicles can be identified with rectal palpation.
 In mares the secondary follicles can be identified only with trans rectal ultrasonography.  The size of secondary follicles is larger in mares than in cows.

153

Which of these animals has the most optimal pelvic bone?

Shetland pony mare

154

What does not belong to the soft birth canal?
 Vagina
 Hymen
 Broad ligaments of pelvis
 Cervix

 Broad ligaments of pelvis

155

What does vaginoscopy mean?

Inserting a vaginoscope and applying a light source into the vagina, for internal observation of the organ

156

No critical size of the soft birth canal.

Pelvic inlet & shoulder region of foetus

157

When can the foetus have a good prognosis?

During lateral deviation of head

158

Definition of posture of a foetus.

Relation of head and legs as compared to trunk of foetus

159

Clear sign of a dead foetus is:

Foetus is emphysematic

160

Which monster type does not have a deformed skull?
 Hydrocephalokele
 Cyclops parasiticus
 Hydrocephalus internus
 Hydrocephalus externus

 Hydrocephalokele

161

What is characteristic for the Harms dog sitting position in the mare?

Hoofs of the foetus can perforate the uterine wall

162

Which statement is not correct?
 Ventral position of foetus during the expulsion stage is abnormal
 Anterior presentation is normal
 Posterior presentation is abnormal
 Foot-nape posture is milder form of the downward displacement of the head. During this two
front legs are in the pelvic cavity and the scull is pushed to the pecten.

Posterior presentation is abnormal

163

Which statement is surely incorrect?
 A hydramniotic foetus cannot survive after birth
 Oedema of the fatal membranes often accompany brucellosis
 A hydrallantoic foetus can survive, but its vitality is usually weak
 The cause of hydramnion is the abnormal function of the fatal kidneys.

The cause of hydramnion is the abnormal function of the fatal kidneys.

164

Please mark the inappropriate statement.
 Infiltration analgesia is used to anaesthetize the planned operation line
 During epidural anaesthesia usually 15-20 ml Lidocaine is administered into the vertebral canal
of the cow
 The direction of the needle during epidural anaesthesia in cattle has an angle of 60 to 75 ° to the body surface
 Analgesia of the abdominal wall can even be ensured by administering a paravertebral
anaesthesia

 The direction of the needle during epidural anaesthesia in cattle has an angle of 60 to 75 ° to the body surface

165

In which case do we have to apply a test traction in the cow?

Relative large foetus

166

How do we perform a test traction in the cow?

Only with a standing animal, using the help of a medium power person

167

Which step is incorrect for episiotomy in the cow?
 Lateral incision of the vulva
 Suture the tissues after extraction of foetus
 Dorsal incision of vulva starting at comissura labiorum dorsale
 Using scissors for cuttings

 Dorsal incision of vulva starting at comissura labiorum dorsale

168

In postpartum suckling beef cows the time of the first postpartum ovulation is influenced by the:

Long-lasting suckling

169

Mark right statement.
Beef heifers are bred one month before the onset of the arbitrary breeding season of older herd mates, because:

They need longer period for resumption of cyclic ovarian function after their first calving

170

Mark incorrect statement.
In postpartum, non- suckling dairy cows.
 The first dominant follicle is present on the ovary on day 8-10 after calving
 The first dominant follicle may ovulate, may undergo atretic degeneration or may become cystic
 The first dominant follicle needs IGF-1 for its final maturation
 The first dominant follicle can never produce sufficient quantity of 17beta-estradiol

 The first dominant follicle can never produce sufficient quantity of 17beta-estradiol

171

Mark incorrect statement.
In postpartum, non-suckling dairy cows the first ovulation may be postponed by:
 The late nadir of energetic imbalance
 The outbreak of severe mastitis
 Puerperal metritis
 Manganese deficiency

 Manganese deficiency

172

Mark the right statement.
In cattle the most important (pathognosic) clinical signs of puerperal metritis is:

The fetid, malodorous, bad-smelling character of the cervical discharge

173

Mark the incorrect statement.
In therapy of puerperal metritis:
 Currently also broad spectrum aminopenicillins (amoxicillin) are frequently used, but their effect is quite questionable
 The intrauterine administration of broad spectrum aminopenicillins (amoxicillin) can be combined with clavulanic acid successfully also in therapy of puerperal metritis.
 currently also aminoglycosides (neomycin, gentamycin) are frequently administered, but it would be better not to use them
 The administration of uterotonic drugs is always justified

 The intrauterine administration of broad spectrum aminopenicillins (amoxicillin) can be combined with clavulanic acid successfully also in therapy of puerperal metritis.

174

One of the statements related to freemartinism is correct.

There is an early (30days) anastomosis between the amniotic vesicles

175

One of the statements related to the segmental aplasia of the Müllerian tract is false.
 Usually both uterine horns are affected
 The ovaries are functioning
 Usually one uterine horn is affected
 The ovarian function is usually physiological
 It is a hereditary developmental lesion

 Usually both uterine horns are affected

176

One of the statements related to the follicle theca cyst is false.
 They are usually larger than 2,5 cm in diameter
 Usually they have a thin wall
 Usually they have a thick wall
 they can occur in both ovaries
 Usually we can find several cysts

 Usually they have a thick wall

177

One of the statements related to the medical prevention of follicle cysts is correct.

We can give GnRH 12-14 days after calving

178

What is the most optimal condition for solving abnormal position and presentation in large animals?

Epidural analgesia, uterus relaxation, copious lubricant, sedatives.

179

According to the chorionic villi distribution, how can we classify the equine placenta?

Placenta diffuse with microcotyledons

180

Which could be the consequence of asphyxia?

Cerebral haemorrhage and oedema

181

According to the microscopic appearance, what kind of placenta has the cow?

Placenta syndesmochorialis / epitheliochorialis

182

Which species has refracted (broken) type of the soft part of the birth canal?

The bitch

183

What are the binculeate cells?

Pregnancy specific protein producing cells in the cow.

184

When could we talk about retention of foetal membranes in the mare?

After 3 hours post-partum.

185

2. In which stage of parturition is the calf born?

2nd

186

3. What is the first effect which is responsible for the induction of the parturition?

Foetal CRH/Acth production.

187

4. What is the main cause of oxytocin Release?

Stimulation of the sensory neurons in the cervix

188

5. What is the task of Relaxin?

Relaxation of the pelvic ligaments

189

6. What can be used to induce parturition in the cow?

Corticosteroid and PGF2α

190

7. What is the most important disadvantage of the induction of parturition?

Foetal membrane retention

191

8. What is the cause of secondary placental retention?

Mechanical difficulty in expelling already separated foetal membranes

192

9. What is the determination of the secondary placental retention?

Mechanical difficulty in expelling already separated foetal membranes

193

10. Factors involved in the separation of maternal and foetal membranes
Wrong answer?

Progesterone.

194

11. How many hrs. After parturition must the foetal membranes leave the cow?

24 hours

195

12. The metabolic or resp. acidosis can be corrected sooner?

Metabolic

196

13. How long is the 1st stage of calving?

8-10 hrs.

197

15. What is the reason of milk fever?

Ca deficit

198

13. How long is the 1st stage of calving?

2-6h

199

What is the transition period?

3wks before and 3wks after parturition

200

18. Milk fever predisposing factor?
FALSE answer

“Twin pregnancy”
CORRECT answers
Older beef cows, dairy cows and autumn calving cows.

201

19. Normal Ca level?

2.2 - 2.6 mmol/l

202

20. Metabolic alkalosis may cause milk fever?

True

203

21. During late pregnancy , low Ca level must be provided in diet? T/F

True

204

22. The conc. Of Ca is 12 times higher in milk than in blood? T/F

True

205

23. Normal P level?

1.4 - 2.5 mmol/L

206

24. In 10ml of colostrum there is 23g Ca which is 9 times higher than he total plasma pool of Ca ? T/F

True

207

25. There is cca 60g of Ca in the daily produced 40L milk?

True

208

26. At Parturition the cow must bring more than 30g Ca per day into the plasma?

True

209

27. What is the Ca Requirements of 40L of milk produced a day?

80g

210

28. What is the effect of PTH?

Increase Ca Level

211

29. What is the effect of Calcitonin?

Decrease Ca level

212

30. What should the Ca levels be during the dry period?

low

213

31. In which period of the gestation does the milk fever generally occur?

Around parturition

214

32. What does the clinical signs of fever occur, At Ca level of….. ?

<1.5 mmol/L

215

33. What is the P levels in hypophosphatemia?

<1.0 mmol/L

216

1. What is the treatment in the case of milk fever?

400 ml of 40% Calcium

217

35. What about eh milking in case of Fever?

No milking for 24 hours

218

36. What is a good body condition score?

2.5 - 3.0

219

37. What is the correct Ca level that should be provided in the transitional dry period?

30-50g/head/day

220

38. What is the Ca level when the clinical signs of milk fever occur?

<1/5 mmol/L

221

39. What is the main reason of Ketosis?

Low Lipid intake

222

40. The ketone bodies are produced from?

From NEFA (non esterified fatty acids)

223

41. What is the effect of Niacin?

Limits lipolysis

224

42. What is the effect of Monensin?

Reduces the production of Ketone bodies

225

44. What is the Zona Pellucida?

The thick transparent membrane surrounding a mammalian ovum before implantation.

226

45. Time of attachment in horse?

36-38 days

227

46. Which part of the spermatozoa fuse with the oolemma of the oocyte?

Equatorial segment

228

47. What does syngamy mean?

Fusion of male and female pronucleus

229

48. Material which reroutes PGF2a to prevent luteolysis?

E2

230

49. Process which prevents luteolysis in mare?

Transuterine migration

231

50. What signal for maternal recognition in dog?

NO signal

232

51. Factor for maternal recognition in woman?

hCG

233

52. When starts biochemical signal in bovine?

Day 15-18

234

53. When starts biochemical signal in sow?

Day 10-12

235

54. Time of attachment in bovine?

Day 18-22

236

55. What does recognition of maternal pregnancy mean?

A process in which some type of signal prevents luteal regression, allowing the corpus luteum to persist and continue to secrete progesterone.

237

56. Time of attachment in woman?

Day 9-12

238

57. What is a typical c section in a cow?

The pregnant uterine horn must be opened near the tip of the horn.

239

58. What do we do with the placentas during C section?

Cut the parts that hang out of the wound and leave the rest in the uterus , give antibiotic….

240

59. How to close uterine wounds?

Two layers. Using seromuscular sutures

241

138. Where do you open the abdominal wall in the cow for a regular caesarian section?
a. Almost exclusively on the left paralumbar area
b. Possibly along the ventral midline
c. Equal if on the left or right paralumbar area
d. In the perineal area, with a dorsolateral cut from the upper comissura of the vulva
e. Only along the ventral midline

a. Almost exclusively on the left paralumbar area

242

62. Instruments used in a cow C section?

Obstetrical chains.

243

65. What is NOT recommended for retained foetal membranes?

Flushing the Uterus.

244

66. Drug with no uterotonic effect?

Oxytetracyclin

245

67. Most commonly used transducer in US examination in mares?

Linear 5-7 MHz

246

68. Earliest pregnancy detection in mares?

9 - 12 days after ovulation

247

69. What layers of uterus to take samples from?

Mucous membranes

248

70. In oestrus mares what does cross section of uterine horns look like?

Sliced lemon

249

71. What organs are protecting seals of tubular genitals in mare?

Vulval lips, cervix, vestibular seal

250

72. What is true about corpus luteum?

most successfully examined in US

251

73. True statement about the tertiary or Antral follicles in mares?

They appear on the US as a non-echogenic area

252

74. True statement about the tertiary or Antral follicles in mares?

US only allows the antral follicles to be examined

253

75. FALSE statement about the tertiary or Antral follicles in mares?

Usual size of preovulatory follicle is about 100mm in diameter

254

76. True statement about the follicles in mares?

At the beginning of the atretic degeneration the size of a follicle still may be 30-40mm in diameter.

255

77. When must samples be taken for endometrial bacteriology in mares?

During oestrus

256

78. How must samples be taken for endometrial bacteriology in mares?

With sterile swab

257

92. Relation between heat and ovulation in Swine ?

Heat is 3 days and ovulation is 46-54hours.

258

93. Oestrus cycle in gilts can be synchronised by?

Feeding synthetic progestagen (i.e regumate) for 10-15 days

259

94. For maintaining porcine pregnancy , luteal progesterone is required?

Throughout the entire pregnant because the swine is cl dependant species.

260

95. Which hormone used to detect cow pregnancy?

E2

261

99. When can the vagina prolapse?

Before calving

262

100. Which hormone deca-peptide?

GnRH

263

103. Tx of uterus prolapse?

Put it back Same for vagina prolapse

264

104. Sedation of cow?

Xylazine

265

105. Synthesis of GnRH where?

Hypothalamus

266

113. Diagnosis of uterine torsion?

Rectal palpation

267

115. How do you check after calving the uterus if there is membranes are inside or bacterial infection?

Rectal palpitation

268

116. Synchronisation of heat?

GnRH then pgf2 alpha the GnRH then insemination

269

115. How do you check after calving the uterus if there is membranes are inside or bacterial infection?

Rectal palpation

270

120. How do you know if there is silent heat?

No signs

271

121. Decapeptide

GnRH

272

128. Time of ovulation in cattle :

Oestrus cycle - Length: 18-24 days
Length of oestrus: 12 – 19 h
Time of ovulation: 10-11 h after the end of estrus
Time of AI: 7-18 h after the onset of estrus

273

129. True regarding hormonal background of cattle ovulation:

Metoestrus: first 2-4 days
Ovulation: after the end of estrus - E2 ↓
CL forming from corpus haemorrhagicum - P4 ↑
Preparing the uterus for the embryo (4-7 days)
FSH: follicular wave

274

133. Parturient Paresis in Cows:

Ca Gluconate

275

135. What do we do with the placentas during caesarian section in the cow before closing the uterine wound?
a. We remove all of them
b. We cut those parts that hang out of the wound and leave the rest in the uterus, and we put antibioticcontaining uterine tablets into the uterus before closing the wound
c. We manually detach the easily accessible caruncles from the uterus
d. We remove most of them, and flush the uterus with saline solution
e. We do not touch them

b. We cut those parts that hang out of the wound and leave the rest in the uterus, and we put antibioticcontaining uterine tablets into the uterus before closing the wound

276

153. Which statement is true in the connection with the follicles in mares?
a. Ultrasonography allows the primary, the secondary and the terciar (antral) follicles to be examined
b. Ultrasonography only allows the primary and the secondary follicles to be examined
c. Ultrasonography only allows the terciar (antral) follicles to be examined
d. The primary and secondary follicles can only be examined rectally
e. Only the primary follicles can be examined rectally

b. Ultrasonography only allows the primary and the secondary follicles to be examined

277

154. Which statement is false in connection with the follicles in mares?
a. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 3040 mm in diameter
b. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter
c. The maximal (but unusual) size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter
d. Follicles 15 mm in diameter are usually not sensitive to gonadotroph hormones
e. Follicles 15 mm in diameter usually do not produce significant quantity of estrogens

b. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter

278

159. Choose the right answer:
a. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used for synchronization in double dose as compared to ruminants because the CL is insensitive to the prostaglandins during the first 12 days
b. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used in one third to half dose as compared to the ruminants because the horse is very sensitive to the prostaglandin side effects
c. Prostaglandins in the mares cannot be used for controlling the estrous cycle, only for induction of parturition
d. Twin pregnancy in the mare can be eliminated by single prostaglandin injection administered after 40 days
e. The location of the equine CL is deep in the ovary therefore the prostaglandins are not effective in the mare

b. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used in one third to half dose as compared to the ruminants because the horse is very sensitive to the prostaglandin side effects

279

161. Choose the right answer:
a. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary throughout the entire pregnancy (CL dependent species)
b. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary only during the first 5 months, therafter the foetoplacental unit produces enough sexualsteroid hormones for maintaining the pregnancy
c. In pregnant mares, both the primary and the accessory corpora lutea are retained throughout but after the day 250 they do not play role in maintaining the pregnancy
d. The horse pregnancy is throughout maintained by eCG (PMSG) produced by the endometrial cups
e. The horse pregnancy is throughout maintained by estrogens synthesized by the fetal gonads

b. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary only during the first 5 months, therafter the foetoplacental unit produces enough sexualsteroid hormones for maintaining the pregnancy

280

162. Choose the right answer:
a. Artificial insemination in the mare is successful only with undiluted fresh semen
b. Insemination of the mare with deep frozen semen is successful only when the sperm is deposited deep into the uterus
c. Insemination of the mare is possible both with fresh and chilled semen which can be stored in special containers for 24-72 hours without significant loss of fertility
d. Artificial insemination of the mare is similar to the cattle: 0,25 ml deep frozen semen is deposited partly into the uterine body, partly into the cervix

c. Insemination of the mare is possible both with fresh and chilled semen which can be stored in special containers for 24-72 hours without significant loss of fertility

281

163. Choose the right answer:
a. Double ovulation never occur in mares
b. Twin pregnancy never occur in mares
c. In mares the only outcome of twin pregnancy is the abortion
d. In mares the only outcome of twin pregnancy is the embryonic/early fetal loss
e. In mares the embryonic / early fetal loss, abortion and stillbirth are the possible consequences of twin pregnancy

e. In mares the embryonic / early fetal loss, abortion and stillbirth are the possible consequences of twin pregnancy

282

164. Choose the right answer: in mares the endometrial cups produce
a. eCG (PMSG)
b. hCG
c. PSPB (pregnancy specific protein B)
d. PAG (pregnancy associated glycoprotein)
e. The endometrial cups produce GnRH

a. eCG (PMSG)

283

165. Choose the right answer: the embryos enter the uterus
a. In mares: on days 56 of gestation
b. In cows: on day 8 of gestation
c. In gilts/sows: on day 5 of gestation
d. In ewes: on days 23 of gestation
e. In she-goats: on days 23 of gestation

a. In mares: on days 56 of gestation

284

166. Choose the false statement: in the mare
a. The corpus luteum graviditatis is formed after recognition of pregnancy
b. After day 20 of gestation the progesterone concentration decreases
c. The P4 production of the primary corpus luteum is increased by eCG
d. The P4 production of the secondary corpus luteum is increased by eCG
e. Only the P4 producing of the placenta is increasing to the effect of eCG

e. Only the P4 producing of the placenta is increasing to the effect of eCG

285

167. Choose the false statement: in the mare
a. After fertilization the oestrogen (E2) level is increased and can be detected as a
b. secondary postovulatory peak
c. The signals for recognition of pregnancy are produced by oestrogens/proteins
d. The oestrogen concentration on the 36th day is higher than at ovulation
e. Oestrogens are only produced by the secondary follicles
f. Oestrogens are also produced by corpus luteum graviditatis

e. Oestrogens are only produced by the secondary follicles

286

170. Choose the right answer! In the goat the easiest and most accurate method to diagnose early pregnancy is the:
a. Amode ultrasound techniques
b. Bmode ultrasound techniques
c. Doppler techniques
d. Measuring of progesterone concentration
e. Measuring of oestrogen concentration

b. Bmode ultrasound techniques

287

171. What is the relation between the heat and ovulation in the swine?
a. Duration of the heat is 24-36 h, ovulation at the beginning of estrus
b. Duration of the heat is 3 days, ovulation between 46-54 h
c. Duration of the heat is 24 h, ovulation 12 h after the end of clinical oestrus
d. Duration of the heat is 57 days, ovulation 24 h before the end of clinical oestrus
e. Duration of the heat is 9 days, ovulation between day 24

b. Duration of the heat is 3 days, ovulation between 46-54 h

288

172. Oestrus cycle of the gilts can be synchronized by:
a. Single luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2a (or analogue)
b. Two luteolytic injections of prostaglandin F2a (or analogue) 11 days apart
c. Long term use of progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) or subcutaneous implant
d. Feeding synthetic progestagen (e.g. Regumate) for 10-15 days
e. GnRH - PGF2a - GnRH treatment (Ovsynch method)

d. Feeding synthetic progestagen (e.g. Regumate) for 10-15 days

289

173. For maintaining the porcine pregnancy luteal progesterone is required:
a. During the first 3540 days, thereafter the foetoplacental unit is enough
b. Throughout the entire pregnancy, because the swine if CL dependent species
c. For approx. 100 days, later stage of the pregnancy is maintained even after ovariectomy
d. Second half of the pregnancy can be maintained by corticosteroid hormones alone
e. The porcine pregnancy is maintained by oestrogen hormones

b. Throughout the entire pregnancy, because the swine if CL dependent species

290

174. One or more of the below statements related to the antral (tercier or Graafian) follicles is/are incorrect:
a. When the antral follicles becomes gonadotrop sensitive, its size is about 2,02,5 mm in sheep and 3,04,0 mm in cattle
b. In cows the size of the preovulatory follicle is about 5-10 mm
c. In mares the size of the preovulatory follicle is about 20-25 mm
d. In cows the size of the preovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm
e. In mares the size of the preovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm (sometimes larger)

 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 5-10 mm.
 In mares, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 20-25 mm.
 In cows, the size of the pre-ovulatory follicle is about 30-45 mm.

291

175. One or more of the below statements related to the estrous cow is/are incorrect. Please indicate it/them:
a. In cows the preovulatory follicle can be palpated rectally, as a smooth surfaced spherical, tightly → fluctuating structure, 1020 mm in diameter
b. During the estrus the cervix is open, and the cervical discharge is transparent, with egg white like consistency
c. During the estrus the tonicity of the myometrium is increased, so the uterus is erigated
d. During the estrus the electric conductivity of the vaginal discharge decreases
e. At the beginning of the estrus the cow tolerates the teasing of the others, and later she starts to tease her mates

d. During the estrus the electric conductivity of the vaginal discharge decreases

292

176. One or more of the below statements related to the uterus is/are incorrect. Please, indicate it/them:
a. Oxytocin and 17 beta estradiol increase the tonicity of the myometrium
b. Inhibin relaxes the tonicity of myometrium
c. The luteolytic PGF2a is synthetized in the endometrium
d. The type of the bovine uterus is “uterus bicornis nonsubseptus”
e. The type of the equine uterus is “uterus bicornis nonsubseptus”

b. Inhibin relaxes the tonicity of myometrium
d. The type of the bovine uterus is “uterus bicornis nonsubseptus”

293

177. One or more of the below statements related to the ovulation is/are incorrect. Please, indicate it/them:
a. The spontaneously ovulating domestic mammals: ruminants, horse, pig, dog
b. Domestic mammals with induced (reflex) ovulation: cat, ferret, camel
c. In spontaneous ovulators the preovulatory LH peak is triggered by the 17 beta estradiol production of the dominant follicle
d. In spontaneous ovulators the 17 beta estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only prerequisite of the formation of preovulatory LH peak
e. In induced (reflex) ovulators the 17 beta estradiol induces estrous signs and predispose for ovulation, but the preovulatory LH peak is triggered by the vaginal insult of mating / intromission plus the mating behaviour

d. In spontaneous ovulators the 17 beta estradiol production of the dominant follicle is the only prerequisite of the formation of preovulatory LH peak

294

179. Choose the only false statement concerning to the contraindications of the caesarian section in the cow:
a. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the bad condition of the mother
b. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the extended damage of the genital organs
c. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the severe fetal emphysema
d. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the endotoxin shock
e. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the long lasting operation which is prognosed by the present calving difficulties

e. Caesarian section is contraindicated in the case of the long lasting operation which is prognosed by the present calving difficulties

295

180. Choose the only correct statement concerning to the anaesthesia during the caesarian section in the cow:
a. Kalschmiot-anaesthesia is used only in standing position
b. The best medicine for epidural anaesthesia is 70 % alcohol
c. Using local anaesthesia around the suture wound decreases the possibility of kicking injuries
d. We can use swine blood collection needle for epidural anaesthesia
e. Using clenbuterol before the operation the relaxation of the abdominal muscles can be reached

a. Kalschmiot-anaesthesia is used only in standing position

296

187. What can be considered as a primary indication for a csection?
a. Fresh dead fetus in the uterus
b. Carpal flexion
c. Relatively large living fetus
d. Absolutely large dead fetus

c. Relatively large living fetus

297

188. What is typical for csection in swine?
a. It is performed in standing position
b. The pregnant uterine horn has to be opened near the tip of the horn
c. The uterus should preferably be opened intra abdominally

d. Usually it is performed in anaesthetized animals

298

189. What do we do with the placentas during csection in the sow before closing the uterine wound?
a. We remove all of them
b. We cut those parts that hang out of the wound and leave the rest in the uterus and we put uterine pills containing antibiotics into the lumen
c. We detach the easily detachable cotyledons from the caruncles
d. We remove them and flush the uterus with saline solution

b. We cut those parts that hang out of the wound and leave the rest in the uterus and we put uterine pills containing antibiotics into the lumen

299

190. How do we close uterine wound in the sow?
a. Using interrupted sutures
b. The first step is to apply continuous suture through all layers
c. Using a running suture with absorbable material
d. Usually in two layers, using seromuscular sutures

d. Usually in two layers, using seromuscular sutures

300

191. How do you remove piglets from the uterus of the sow?
a. I always fix the head of the piglet and take it out through the uterine wound
b. With one hand I fix the head, or the hind legs, while with the other hand I apply a massage to the outside of the uterus
c. I inject oxytocin and wait until the piglets appear in the wound after each other, then I gently take them out
d. I open the uterus above every piglet, then close the wound immediately after removing each piglet

b. With one hand I fix the head, or the hind legs, while with the other hand I apply a massage to the outside of the uterus

301

194. When do I not necessarily need to perform a csection in a sow?
a. During uterine torsion
b. Usually, it can be applied in presentation failures, but it is not often indicated since often these can be solved in another way as well
c. If fetuses have died
d. If piglets do not born after the administration of oxytocin

b. Usually, it can be applied in presentation failures, but it is not often indicated since often these can be solved in another way as well

302

195. The following instruments can be used during csection in the sow:
a. Ostertag’s eye hooks
b. Obstetrical chains
c. Needle holder
d. Kühnes crutch

c. Needle holder

303

197. How can you mechanically stimulate respiration in the newborns?

Mouth to mouth expired air, tracheal tube with AMBU balloon

304

197. How can you mechanically stimulate respiration in the newborns?

Mouth to mouth expired air, tracheal tube with AMBU balloon

305

198. Which treatment protocols are suitable for the retention of fetal membranes in dogs and cats?

Ergot alkaloids, antimicrobials, in case of need hysterotomy

306

199. Which sign is not characteristic for starting a delivery?

Smelling discharge from the vagina

307

200. Which one is an abnormal labour pain?

Violent pains

308

201. Instruments or manoeuvers which are not used in ventral position

Wood planks

309

202. When would you perform an episiotomy in the cow?

If only the last critical part of the soft birth canal is narrow and the foetus could pass the bony part and the cervix

310

204. What kind of instrument would you not use for the reposition of a laterally deviated head in the horse?

Kaemmerer torsion fork.

311

206. What is characteristic for Harms dog sitting in horses?

Hoofs of the foetus can perforate the uterine wall

312

207. You should not perform embriotomy in case of a

Living foetus

313

208. Which drugs can be used for the treatment of secondary uterine inertia in the dog?

Oxytocin glucose (oxytocin + calcium)

314

210. What does surfactant expression mean?

Surface active lipoprotein in the lung

315

211. What kind of acidbase stance is characteristic for a healthy neonate?

Slight respiratory metabolic acidosis

316

212. What is the first thing you have to do with an asphyxiated neonate?

Airway aspiration

317

213. What does the ARD test mean?

Appetite, rumination defecation

318

214. Which is true for the numerical scoring system to quantify the vitality of newborn calves?

V1 - toneless, head dropping, limbs extended, cardiac activity present

319

215. Which one is the first step to resuscitate asphyxiated newborns?

Aspirate nti-inflamma and tracheal fluid

320

216. What is the marginal haematoma?

Haematoma at the edge of placenta zonaria in carnivores

321

217. Which one is a correct treatment for low meconium retention in a foal?

Acetylcysteine solution into the rectum, fluid therapy p.o. Pain control

322

218. What does hypercapnia mean?

Blood carbonate concentration increase

323

220. What is the optimal condition for solving abnormal position and presentation in large animals?

Epidural analgesia, uterus relaxation, copious lubricant sedatives

324

221. According to the chrorionic vili distribution how can we classify the equine placenta?

Placenta diffuse with microcotyledons

325

222. Which could be the consequence of asphyxiate?

Cerebral haemorrhage and edema

326

223. According to the microscopic appearance what kind of placenta has the cow?

Placenta syndesmochorialis/ epitheliochorialis

327

225. What are the binucleate cells?

Pregnancy specific protein producing cells in the cow

328

226. When could we talk about retention of fetal membranes in the mare?

After 3 hours post partum

329

227. Which step is incorrect for episiotomy in the bitch?

Unilateral incision of the vulva

330

228. What is the best method for correction of abnormal presentation in large animals?

The nearest limbs have to be pulled into the birth canal, if the hind and the front legs are in equal distance we always try for a longitudinal posterior presentation

331

229. Which obstetrical snare is not correct to use in the mare?

Jöhnk snare

332

230. What is the incorrect method for correction of hock flexion in case of large animals?

In the case of small foetus extraction without correction

333

231. What is the incorrect method for traction without reposition of the hip flexion in the mare?

In the case of abortion, premature partus or if the foetus is small pull out the foetus with Jöhnk snare

334

232. Which abnormality is an absolute indication for csection in the mare?

Dorsotransverse presentation

335

235. How long is the estrus in the ewe (in hours)?
a. 10-20
b. 24-48
c. 24-36
d. 30-40
e. 40-50

c. 24-36

336

236. How long is the life span of the corpus luteum in the goat (in days)?
a. 21
b. 16
c. 19
d. 14
e. 10

b. 16

337

239. Choose the right answer connected to the source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance:
a. The sheep is a placenta dependent animal
b. The goat is a placenta dependent animal
c. Until day 50 of the pregnancy, the sheep is a corpus luteum dependent animal, after which the placenta takes over this task
d. The goat is a placenta dependent animal till day 50 of the pregnancy
e. From day 50 of pregnancy, the sheep is corpus luteum dependent animal

c. Until day 50 of the pregnancy, the sheep is a corpus luteum dependent animal, after which the placenta takes over this task

338

274. Choose the only false statement concerning to the csection in the sow:

Vaginal prolapse is a rare indication

339

275. Choose the only correct statement concerning to the csection in the sow:

We do it either in deep sedation combined with local anaesthesia or in general anaesthesia

340

276. Choose the only false statement concerning to the complications of the csection in the sow:

Obstipation never occurs

341

277. Choose the only false statement concerning to the csection in the mare:

- We open the nonpregnant uterine horn and pull the fetus from the pregnant horn
- Putting uterine tablets into the lumen provides sufficient protection in the post operative therapy

342

279. At what gestational age can you first see a heartbeat of an equine embryo?

25-28 days

343

280. At what gestational age should you ideally evaluate a mare for twins?

13-15 days

344

281. At what gestational age do the endometrial cups form in the mare?

35-38 days

345

282. At what gestational age are we able to determine fetal gender in horse?

60-70 days

346

283. What drug would you give this mare today?

hCG

347

284. What would you recommend doing today with this mare?

Order semen for tomorrow

348

289. Which statement is true in connection with the follicles in mares?

At the beginning of the atretic degeneration the size of a follicle still may be 30-40 mm in diameter

349

307. Which method cannot be used for detecting pregnancy in small ruminants?

Measure fibrinogen concentration in peripheral blood

350

308. Which statement is correct concerning the ewes?

On the xray the fetal skeleton can be seen from the 60th day

351

309. What are the most important rules during obstetrical examination in the case of dystocia?

Be clean, be gentle, and use a lot of lubrication

352

310. What should be given to acidotic lambs?

Sodium bicarbonate and glucose

353

312. What should be given to the doe 4 weeks before parturition?

Vaccination against tetanus and enterotoxaemia