Milk Hygiene And Mastitis Flashcards Preview

CVS 1 > Milk Hygiene And Mastitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Milk Hygiene And Mastitis Deck (45):
1

what is the function of a vacuum pump?

extracts a fixed amount of air

2

what does the regulator do

leaks air into the system to maintain vacuum level - decreases vacuum and should leak throughout milking

3

what does the pulsation system do

maintains blood flow during milking to allow the teat to fill with milk

4

what are the 4 pulsation phases

A= liner opening,
B = liner open and milk out
C = liner closed
D = liner closed and massaging teats

5

what should the pulsation rate be?

60 cycles per minute

6

how long should the milk out and massaging phases be?

500ms and 200-250ms

7

how often should you change rubber liners
silicone liners

2500 milkings or 6 months
18 months

8

what is the maximum number falling teat cups allowed

5 per 100 cows

9

what is the average milking time per cow

5-6 minutes

10

what are the phases of circulation cleaning

rinse, wash and disinfect

11

what are thermodynamic bacteria and what does their presence in milk indicate

withstand high temperatures and pasteurisation - bacillus and clostridia
machine wash up problem

12

what are psychotropic bacteria

grow under refrigeration - Pseudomonas and listeria

13

what are coliform bacteria and what does their presence in milk indicate

always found in raw milk - indicate post-processing contamination

14

what are the signs of clinical mastitis

abnormal milk with clots and odd colours and a swollen udder

15

what is the 5 point mastitis control plan

culling, post milking teat dipping, milking machine working properly, treatment of cases and blanket dry cow therapy

16

what does the SCC of milk have to be under in order to sell to the public?

400,000

17

what factors affect SCC

mastitis, level of infection, type of bacteria and how many quarters infected

18

steps to get a low SCC

identify cows with high SCC, identify the bacteria present, stop spread of infection and action for high SCC cows

19

what bacteria is the most difficult to treat and why

staph aureus - hides from antibiotics - need to cull

20

what bacteria is the easiest to treat and can be eradicated

strep agalactiae

21

what is the difference between blanket and selective dry cow therapy

blanket - all cows get treated
selective - only those with known infection are treated

22

what is the aim of dry cow therapy and what time frame to farmers usually choose

kill bacteria in the udder and prevent new infection
42-60 days (longer than withdrawal period)

23

what type of bacteria are most sub-clinical cases caused by

gram positive

24

when buying replacement heifers - at what level of SCC would the farmer NOT want to buy the cow

above 200,000 or if they dont know the value

25

how is clinical mastitis spread and what type does it cause

spread at milking causing subclinical mastitis

26

what is the best method to monitor an prevent clinical mastitis

forestripping and computer monitors

27

what is the most common cause of clinical mastitis and where is it found

e. coli - found in manure

28

what is strep uberis associated with

straw bedding

29

what is klebsiella associated with
pseudomonas

wood bedding
water supply

30

what bacteria is the cause of summer mastitis and associated with a foul smelling discharge

truperella pyogenes

31

what percentage reduction do teat sealants give in cases of clinical mastitis

25-30%

32

what is the target SCC for cows

below 150,000

33

what is the difference between homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria in the production of milk

homo - only produce lactic acid - cheddar and gouda
hetero - other component such as co2 - emmental

34

what is scalding in cheese production

raiding the tempature for syneresis of casein

35

what is the name of the protein found in milk

casein

36

what is butter made from

fermented cream or pasteurised cream

37

what temperature does milk have to be heated to to make yoghurt

85

38

what is bactoscan an indicator of and what level is suitable for human consumption

on farm hygiene - below 100,000

39

what is SCC an indicator of and what level is suitable for human consumption

mastitis infection less han 400,000

40

how often should herd tests be done for TB and brucellosis and how often should be milk be sampled

twice a year and 4 times a year

41

what is standardisation in relation to milk production

standard fat and protein content - skimming

42

what is homogenisation

reducing size of fat particles to prevent creaming

43

what are the 2 types of pasteurisation

high temperature short time 72-75 degrees for 15-20 secnds and ultra high temp processing 138 degrees

44

what is the production temperature for milk

37-38

45

what temperature should milk be stored at in the bulk tank and at the factory

3.5 and 3-4 degrees