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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (17):
1

what is meant by eccentric and concentric hypertrophy?

eccentric occurs as a result of volume overload and is due dilation of the heart chambers
concentric is due to increased pressure where you get thickening of the wall but the chamber volume remains the same

2

name 2 causes of ventricular overload

vavlvular insufficiency and abnormal shunting of blood between chambers

3

Name 2 causes of pressure overload

stenosis or ostruction of ventricular outflow tract and increased pulmonary or systemic arteriole presuure

4

what maladaptive problems can result from prolonged myocardial hypertrophy?

reduced ventricular wall compliance/flexibility where it cant relaz properly
myocardial blood supply cant meet the increased demands
microcyte death and fibrosis

5

what is the problem associated with patent ductus arteriosus

provides a route for blood to shunt from left to the right side of circulation and is considered abnormal if present for more than 5 days.

6

what are the consequences of a patent ductus arteriosus

turbulent blood flow resulting in heart murmur
increased blood volume in pulmonary circiulation - oedema of the lungs
increased of blood returning to the left side of the heart causing volume overload and eccentric hypertrophy

7

what is an atrial septal defect

hole in the wall of the septum between the atrium and ventricle allowing blood to flow through

8

what are examplse of valvular outflow tract malformation

aortic and pulmonic stenosis
atrioventricular valve dysplasia

9

what is a transposition complex

when the arteriole trunk vessels are plumbed up wrong resulting in malpositioning of the aorta and pulmonary artery

10

whats is the cause of constrictive pericarditis

fibrous pericardial adhesions and organising granulation tissue in the pericardial sac constricting the heart

11

what is hydropericardium and what can cause it

transudate or modified transudate within the pericardial sac
- disease causing generalised oedema
- neoplasia of the heart obstructing drainage
- haemorrhage from haemangiosarcoma

12

what term is used to describe accumulation of whole blood in the pericardial sac - what can cause this

haemopericardium
tumour such as haemangiosarcoma (right atrium), rupture of blood vessels

13

name 2 heart base tumours

thyroid tumour and chemodectomas

14

what is the cardiac tamponade

accumlulation of fluid in pericardial sac leading to raised pericardial pressure and compression of the heart leading to impaired cardiac filling
heart cant relax so doesnt fill in diastole leading to reduced cardiac output and hypotension and shock

15

where is a haemangiosarcoma most commonly found

right atrium

16

what is an example of an ectopic thyroid tumour

adenoma or adenocarcionam

17

what is cardiomyopathy

any disease affecting the myocardium