Mitosis and Meiosis, Chromosomes and Karyotypes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mitosis and Meiosis, Chromosomes and Karyotypes Deck (46)
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1

Homolog

Chromosome similar in size and sequence

2

Somatic cells vs. germ

Diploid vs haploid
46 vs 23

3

What accounts for normal genome variation

SNP - most common
Indels
Microsatellites
CNV

4

Gene duplication possiblities

Degradation ---- loss
Neofunctionalization - New function
Subfunctionalization - different function

5

Arms of chromosome

P - short
Q - long

6

Area betwen P and q arm

Centromere

7

Composition of chromosome

DNA and protein

8

How to do a karyotype?

Giesma stained
Arrange by size with homologs next to each other
Large scale can be visualized

9

Philidelphia chromosome disease and numbers

9 and 22
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also ALL and AML)

10

Phildelphia chromosome mutation that occurs

Translocation
ABL moves from 9 to 22
BCR and ABL now next to each other on 22

11

Tx for CML

Gleevac - ABL inhibitor

12

ABL function

Cell proliferation

13

ABL name and structure

Abelson murine leukemia virus homolong 1 (tyrosine kinase)

14

BCR

Breakpoint cluster region

15

Mechanism of ABL/BCR mutation

Promotor from BCR will drive constant expression of ABL

16

Burkitt's lymphoma mutation

IGH-MYC fusion
Increased MYC activity
Only exons 2 and 3 from MYC make it

17

MYC and IGH chromosomes

8 and 14

18

IGH function

Expressed all the time in B-cells

19

Increased MYC due to

Many things
Sometimes a IGH-MYC translocation

20

Mitosis

Generate 2 daughter cells with same genetic makeup

21

Cells in G phase

2n=diploid

22

Cells after S phase

4n = tetraploid

23

G1 phase

Gap before deuplciatiopn

24

S

DNA synthesis and chromosome duplication

25

G2

Interphase gap before mitosis

26

Mitosis location

Somatic cells of the body

27

Shortest part of cell cycle

M

28

Sister chromatids

ID copies of chromosomes held together at centromere

29

Centrosomes

Cellular organelles involved in moving chromosomes apart

30

Metaphase

Duplicated chromosomes randomly line up at metaphase plate