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Foundations Test 1 > Translation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Translation Deck (42)
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1

Start codon

AUG

2

Stop codons

UAA, UGA, UAG

3

Steps of tRNA "charging"

Forms aminoacyl-AMP via hydrolysis
tRNA synthetases must only join each amino acid to the tRNA that has the anticodon needed for that amino acid

Requires ATP Hydrolysis

4

Inosine can base pair with

U,C,A

5

Wobble position

Third position (on 5' end)

6

What does wobble position allow

Same amino acid can come from different codons

7

Ribosomes are

Large ribonucleoprotein complexes conatining several rRNAs and many proteins

8

Initation of translation

1) CBP (cap-binding protein) binds to 5' Cap of mRNA
2) Small ribosomal unit interacts with CBP complexed with 5' Cap
3) Small subunit scans until it finds AUG (Kozak sequence)

9

Important initiation factor for initiation of translation

eIF-2

10

4 antibiotics that target translation

Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Tetracyclines
Streptomycin

11

IRE

Iron responsive elements found on mRNA

12

IRE-binding protein

Binds to IRE

13

IRE-binding protein binding pattern

Iron-bound IRE-BP cannot bind to IRE

14

Ferritin function

Iron storage protein

15

Transferrin receptor

Cell membrane protein that brings Fe into the cell

16

Low/high iron ferritin

Low - IRE-binding protein binds to IRE so translation inhibited
High - IRE-binding protein cannot bind so translation proceeds

17

Low/high iron transferrin

Low - IRE-binding protein binds to IRE to prevent degradation
High - IRE-BP cannot bind so degradation of mRNA occurs

18

HCI

Kinase inhibited by heme
Phosphorylates and inactivates eIF2, which decreases translation of mRNAs (including globin mRNAs)

19

eIF2

When not phosphorylated, increases translation of globin proteins

20

What rxn occurs to make disulfide bonds

Oxidation
O2-----H2O2

21

Insulin generated form -_____ and example of _____

Proteolysis of proteins
Proinsulin (also produces C peptide)

22

Digestive enzyme activation

Trypsinogen cleaved by enteropeptidase and trypsin into trypsin
Trypsin cleaves proelastase into elastase
Trypsin cleaves chymotrypsinogen into chymotrypsin

23

2 paths to apoptosis and where they converge

Fas and mitochondrion
Both cleave procaspase 3

24

Fas path to apoptosis

Fas receptor cleaves procaspase-8 into caspase 8...caspase 8 cleaves procaspase 3 into caspase 3...caspase 3 causes apoptosis

25

Mitochondrial path to apoptosis

Mitochondrion forms apoptosome...procaspase 9 cleaved to caspase 9...cleaves procaspase 3 into caspase 3

26

Clotting pathways converge ofn

Prothrombin

27

Hemophilia A

Low factor 8

28

Hemophilia B

Low factor 9

29

Hemophilia symtoms

Prolonged bleeding and bruising easily

30

Normal/alzheimer pathway of Abeta

alpha secretase
beta secretase