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Flashcards in Gene Regulation Deck (42)
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1

Reverse transcriptase

Rna to DNA

2

Functional RNA

Ribozymes, long non-coding RNAs, miRNAs

3

Start codon of translation

ATG (DNA)
AUG (RNA)

4

Stop codon

UAA, UAG, UGA (RNA)
TAA, TAG, TGA (DNA)

5

Introns

Removed

6

Cleae-polyadenylation site

Cut at the 3' end and a bunch of A's are added...defines end of last exon included

7

Why is mRNA longer than protein?

5' and 3' UTR regions

8

Enhancer/promoter location

Promoter - only at beginning
Enhancer - can be anywhere

9

Upstream vs. downstream

Upstream - 5'
Downstream - 3'

10

What controls expression of genes?

Trans-acting transcription factors and cis-acting DNA sites

11

Cis

DNA motifs
Structurally linked to gene
Do not encode proteins but serve as docking sites for trans-acting genes

12

Trans

Protein factors that regulate transcription of target genes...non covalentlybind to cis acting sites in a sequence specific manner

13

Promoter

Adjacent to transcription start site...contains cis-acting site that assembles with RNA polymerase 2 complex...may interact with others

14

Enhancer

Bind trans-acting transcription factors that positively influence chroomatin

15

Silencer

Opposite of enhancer

16

Trans-acting factor structure

Bipartite structure
Activation domain and DNA-binding domain

17

Changes in amino acid sequence of trans-acting

Change affinity of binding to DNA

18

Changes in nucleotides of cis-site

Increase or decrease affinity to protein

19

Enhancers are a cluster of

Transcription factor binding sites

20

Enhancers can

Alter chromatin or influence the recruitment of RNA poly 2 complex

21

Enhancers are DNA elelments that are linked to

Increasing rate of transcription initation from a linked promoter

22

Co-activator example

CBP/p300
HAT

23

Co-activator

Interact with transcription factors (do NOT bind DNA)

24

Co-activators may act as

Bridge between DNA binding proteins and Pol 2 transcription initiation complex

25

Co-repressor example

HDAC

26

Co-repressors

May block bridges between DNA binding proteins and Pol 2 transcription initiation complex

27

Transcription facotrs can

Influence assempy of RNA polymerase 2 and associated factors on a promoter
Influence rate of transcription initiation
Interact with cis-acting site that are large distance away from promoters

28

Combinatorial model of gene regulation

Interaction of multiple trans-acting transcription factors with multiple cis-acting binding sites will ultimately determine specificity, timing, and level of gene expression

29

One TF can control

Multiple target genes

30

Nuclear receptor superfamily of TFs conserved doamin

DNA-binding domain