Metabolic Fuel Use: Exercising, Dieting, and Starvation Flashcards Preview

Foundations Test 1 > Metabolic Fuel Use: Exercising, Dieting, and Starvation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Metabolic Fuel Use: Exercising, Dieting, and Starvation Deck (38)
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1

Calories per macromolecule

Carb - 4
Fat - 9
Protein - 4
Alcohol - 7

2

Respiration flow chart

Digest - circulate - cells - oxidation to CO2 and H2O - ATP - Energy

3

Glycolysis including location

Anaerobic breakdown of glucose in cytoplasm
2 ATP per glucose
Produce pyruvate

4

Krebs cycle including location

Mitochondria
Aerobic (needs by-products of aerobic ETC)
2 ATP per initial glucose

5

Ideal cellular respiration

1 glucose = 38 ATP

6

ETC

Aerobic
34 ATP per glucsoe

7

Carbohydrates

Partially oxidized
Glucose is predominant form in blood

8

Essential AA

PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanine
Valine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Leucine
Lysine

9

Conditionally essential AA

Arginine
Tyrosine
Cysteine

10

Lipids composed of

Triacylglycerols

11

Glycogen, protein, and triglyceride amount and %

Muscle (glycogen) - .15 kg (.4%)
Liver (glycogen) - .08 kg (.2%)
Protein - 6.0 and 14.4%
Triglyceride (adipose) - 15 and 85%

12

Why store energy as fat

More calories per kg, so less added weigth

13

In fed state,

Cellular respiration occurs in all cells
Triglycerides to adipose tissue
glucose to liver, muscles, and adipose tissue

14

Major fasting energy source

Hepatic glycogenolysis (breakdown of liver glycogen)

15

Minor fasting energy sources

Hepatic gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose)
Adipose release of fat
Protein degradation

16

Gluconeogenesis in liver

Lactate converted to pyruvate to glucose using FFA from adipose tissue

17

Pyruvate can be converted to

Lactate

18

In post-absorptive state,

Triglycerides broken down, ATP from ketones and fatty acids

19

1 lb of adipose tissue

3500 calories

20

1000 calories less per day `

lose 2 lbs per week

21

BMI formula

Weight/ht^2 (kg/m)
(WeightX704)/(height^2) (lb/in)

22

BMI thresholds

<18.5 - underweight
25 - overweight
40 - morbidly obese

23

Fad diets typically result in

Degradation of muscle protein and liver glycogen
Water is excreted

24

Weight loss more than 2 lbs per week is predominantly

Water

25

Short-term E

Glycolysis.....5 to 3 mins

26

Immediate energy

ATP - CP...seconds

27

Long-term E

Aerobic...cellular respiration/ATP production

28

Longer periods of exercise

Glycogen used initially, then switch to adipose fat breakdown

29

Marasmus vs. cachexia

Malnutrition
Marasmus has no underlying disease state

30

Priorities for blood supply

RBCs, brain, protein preservation