Flashcards in Mod 5 Bleeding and Shock Deck (39):
The circulatory or cardiovascular system
-Responsible for the distribution of blood to all of the body.
-The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the body's cells and tissues as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
-The body's inability to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients. Also known as shock.
--The arteries carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart.
-Has a thick muscular wall for dilation and constriction and to withstand a large amount of pressure.
-Oxygen rich blood is emptied from the arteries into microscopically small capillaries which supply every cell of body.
-Blood that has been depleted of oxygen and loaded with carbon dioxide and other wastes in the capillaries empties into the veins, which carry it back to the heart.
Function of blood (Transportation of gases)
-Blood picks up inhaled oxygen at the alveoli in the lungs and carries it to the body's cells.
Function of blood (Nutrition)
-Blood circulates nutrients from the intestines or storage tissues to the other body cells.
Function of blood (Excretion)
-Blood carries waste products from the cells to organs such as the kidneys that eliminate them from the body.
Function of blood (Protection)
-Blood carries antibodies and white blood cells which help fight disease and infection.
Function of blood (Regulation)
-Blood carries substances that control the body's functions such as hormones, water, salt, enzymes, and chemicals.
-Major cause of shock in trauma.
-Bleeding from an artery which is characterized as a bright red color and is rapid profuse and hard to control.
-Bleeding from a vein which is characterized as a dark red color. Bleeds steady and is easy to control.
-Occurs where appendages of the body connect to the trunk
-Large arteries and veins tend to be less well protected and vulnerable to traumatic forces.
-Bleeding from the capillaries. Slow and and oozing flow of blood.
-Reduction in the body's temperature.
-Can affect bloods ability to clot.
Signs of shock (Hypoperfusion)
-Altered mental status
-Pale, cool, and clammy skin
-Nausea and vomiting
-Vital changes such as jump in pulse rate, increase in respiratory rate, drop in blood pressure.
-First step in bleeding control
-Do not remove dressing once set.
-Use a pressure dressing which is a bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage.
-Elevate injury above the heart
-Gravity helps reduce the blood pressure to the extremity.
-Substances applied as powders, dressings, gauze, or bandages to open wounds to stop bleeding.
-A device used for bleeding control that constricts all blood flow to and from a major extremity injury.
-Do not apply directly above a joint.
-Apply 2 inches above the wound.
-Controls musculoskeletal injuries.
-Stabilizes extremities to prevent bone ends from causing further injuries.
-Used to control internal and external bleeding.
-Produces a form of direct pressure.
-Application of a cold pack or ice to an injury.
-Cold reduces bleeding by constricting blood vessels
-Cold minimizes swelling
-Internal bleeding occurs inside the body normally caused mainly by blunt trauma but also by penetrating trauma.
Mechanisms of blunt trauma that may cause internal bleeding
-Motor vehicle crashes
Mechanisms of penetrating trauma that cause internal bleeding
Signs of internal bleeding
-Swollen or deformed extremities
-Bleeding from mouth, rectum, vagina, or other body orifice
-Tender, rigid, or distended abdomen
-Vomiting coffee grounds like substance or bright red vomitus.
-Dark tarry stools
Causes of shock
-The heart fails as a pump
-Blood volume is lost
-Blood vessels dialate, creating a vascular container capacity that is too great to be filled by the available blood.
-The body senses a decrease in perfusion and tries to compensate for it.
-Begins when body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion
-Late signs of shock
-Resulting from blood or fluid loss (Dehydration)
-Shock resulting from blood loss
-Lack of perfusion brought on by blood loss but by the hearts inadequate pumping action.
-Often the result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
-Shock due to nerve paralysis resulting in the dilation of blood vessels that increases the volume of the circulatory system beyond the point where it can be filled.
-Shock caused by toxins produced by sepsis that can lead to dilation of the blood vessels.
The golden hour
-Getting a patient to a hospital within an hour after the injury took place