Mod 5 Chest and Abdominal Trauma Flashcards Preview

Corpsman A-School > Mod 5 Chest and Abdominal Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 5 Chest and Abdominal Trauma Deck (29):

Flail chest

-Fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of fractured segment


Paradoxical motion

-Movement of ribs in a flail segment that is opposite to the direction of movement of the rest of the chest cavity


Patient care for flail chest

-Perform primary assessment
-Administer O2
-If breathing inadequately assist with ventilation's
-Some systems allow use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.
-Monitor the patient carefully
-Watch respiratory rate and depth


Open chest wound

-Not only is skin broken but chest wall is penetrated for example by a bullet or knife blade


Sucking chest wound

-An open chest wound in which air is sucked into chest cavity.


Signs of sucking chest wound

-Patient has wound in chest
-May or may not be sucking sound associated with open chest wound
-May be gasping for air


Patient care for open chest wound

-Maintain open airway
-Seal the open chest wound as quickly as possible
-Apply occlusive dressing at least 2 inches wider than wound.
-Administer O2
-Care for shock
-Transport as soon as possible
-Consider advanced life support if it will not delay the patients arrival at hospital.


Flutter valve and occlusive dressing

-Sealing plastic on all sides except for one corner
-On inspiration dressing seals wound preventing air entry
-On expiration allows air to escape through untapped section of dressing


Asherman chest seal

-Includes one way valve in the design



-Occurs when air enters the chest cavity possibly causing collapse of a lung


Tension pneumothorax

-A type of pneumothorax in which air that enters chest cavity is prevented from escaping



-When the chest cavity fills with blood
-Can be caused when lacerations within chest cavity are produced by penetrating objects or fractured ribs



-Chest cavity fills with both blood and air


Traumatic asphyxia

-Associated with sudden compression of the chest.
-Sternum and ribs exert severe pressure on heart and lungs forcing blood out of the right atrium and up into the jugular veins in the neck.


Cardiac Tamponade

-When an injury to the heart causes blood to flow into the the surrounding pericardial sac.


Aortic injury and dissection

-Damage to the aorta the largest artery in the body.
-Damage to the aorta can cause fatal bleeding.


Commotio cordis

-When a patient is hit in the center of the chest causing ventricular fibrillation. Or an uneven pumping of the heart resulting in a cardiac arrest.


Signs of a pneumothorax

-Respiratory difficulty
-Uneven chest wall movement
-Reduction of breath sounds on the affected side of chest
-Increase in respiratory difficulty
-Developing shock, rapid or weak pulse and low blood pressure due to decreased cardiac output
-Distended neck veins
-Tracheal deviation to uninjured side
-Reduced or absent breath sounds on affected side of chest


Signs of a hemothorax

-Signs of a pneumothorax plus coughed up red frothy blood


Signs of traumatic asphyxia

-Distended neck veins
-Head, neck, and shoulders appearing dark blue or purple
-Bloodshot and bulging eyes
-Swollen and blue tongue and lips
-Chest deformity


Signs of a cardiac tamponade

-Distended neck veins
-Very weak pulse
-Low blood pressure
-Steadily decreasing pulse pressure


Signs of aortic injury or dissection

-Tearing chest pain radiating to back
-Differences in pulse or blood pressure between right and left extremities or between arms and legs
-Palpable pulsating mass
-Cardiac arrest


Patient care for injuries to chest cavity

-Maintain an open airway. Be prepared to apply suction
-Administer O2
-Follow local protocols as to the preferred type of dressing for any open wound.
-Care for shock
-Transport as soon as possible
-Consider ALS intercept if it will not delay patients arrival at hospital.


Evisceration and most commonly injured organs

-An intestine or other internal organ protruding through a wound in the abdomen
-The liver and spleen is the most commonly injured organ


What is VIPS

-Vital Signs
-Primary assessment
-Secondary assessment


What is SMOBD



Common signs of abdominal injury

-Pain starting as mild pain then rapidly intolerable
-Obvious lacerations and punctures to abdomen, pelvis, and middle and lower back or chest wounds near diaphragm
-Indications of blunt trauma
-Indications of shock
-Coughing up or vomiting blood
-Rigid or tender abdomen
-Distended abdomen


Abdominal injury care (open and closed)

-Stay alerted for vomiting, keep open airway
-Place patient on back legs flexed
-Administer O2
-Care for shock
-Give nothing by mouth
-Monitor vital signs constantly
-Transport as soon as possible
-Control external bleeding
-Do not touch eviscerated, or exposed organs. Apply SMOBD
-Do not removed any impaled objects.