MoD 8 (Neoplasia 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MoD 8 (Neoplasia 1) Deck (40):
1

Define neoplasia:

Abnormal growth of cells which persists after the initial stimulus is removed

2

Define tumour:

Any clinically detectable lump or swelling

3

Define metastasis:

A malignant neoplasm that has spread from its original site to a new non-contiguous site

4

Define anaplasia:

The loss of differentiation of cells and their orientation to each other, characteristic of malignant tumours

5

Define pleomorphism:

The assumption of various distinct forms by a single organism or within a species.

6

Define progression:

A carcinogenic process where cells are genetically altered by initiators, and undergo a second cell expansion which allows uncontrollable growth

7

Define Scirrhous:

The dense stroma seen in cancers that produce abundant connective tissue

8

What is a Leiomyoma?

Benign tumour derived from smooth muscle
ie. Uterine Leiomyoma

9

What is an Osteoma?

Benign tumour of bone

10

What is the name given to a benign tumour of cartilage?

Chondroma

11

What is the name given to a benign tumour of adipose cells?

Lipoma

12

Define Glioma:

Benign tumour composed of neuroglia
Ie Astocytoma, Oligodendrocytoma, Eppendymoma

13

What is the name given to a benign tumour of striated muscle cells?

Rhabdomyoma

14

Define polyp:

Any growth/mass protruding from a mucous membrane, usually benign, often considered 'pre-cancerous' and may become malignant

15

What is a haemangioma?

Birthmark
Congenital vascular benign tumour

16

What is a naevus?

Mole
Benign localised overgrowth of melanocytes

17

Define hamartoma:

Benign tumour-like nodule, resulting from faulty development of an organ

18

What is the name given to a malignant tumour derived from epithelia?

Carcinoma

19

What is the name given to a malignant tumour derived from connective tissue?

Sarcoma

20

Where are the 4 most common sites of metastasis?

1) Bone
2) Brain
3) Liver
4) Lung

21

Name the most common form of skin cancer (~80%), and the main causative factor it is associated with:

Basal cell carcinoma
Chronic UV exposure and radiation

22

Define Choriocarcinoma, and the tumour marker it usually releases:

Germ cell cancer containing trophoblast cells
Beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

23

What tumour marker does colorectal carcinoma often release?

CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen)

24

Name the most common primary bone cancer type in adults, and the most common bones it affects:

Chondrosarcoma
Pelvis, rib cage, proximal humerus/fibia/tibia

25

Define mesothelioma, and the main causative factor it is associated with:

Malignant neoplasm of mesothelium cells (from serous membranes)
Asbestos exposure

26

What is the ABCDE approach for diagnosis of malignant melanoma?

A- asymmetry
B- border
C- colour
D- diameter
E- evolving

27

Which germ layer are melanocytes derived from?

Ectoderm

28

List some risk factors of malignant melanoma:

- Lots of moles
- Fair skin
- High UV exposure/radiation
- Previous cancer

29

Where does malignant melanoma usually metastasise to?

- Bone
- Brain
- Liver
- Lung
- Skin/muscle

30

Define multiple myeloma, and give the tumour marker that it often releases:

Malignant neoplasm derived from plasma cells
B2M (Beta-2 Microglobulin)

31

What tumour markers do germ cell cancers often release?

1) AFP (alpha-fetoprotein)
2) Beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

32

Differentiate between a benign and malignant tumour, using macroscopic features:

Benign - grow in confined local area, with pushing outer margin
Malignant - irregular outer margin and shape, may show areas of ulceration/necrosis

33

Differentiate between a benign and malignant tumour, using microscopic features:

Benign - Cells are well differentiated, and resemble parent tissue
Malignant - Cells range from poorly to well differentiated, may show hyperchromasia, mitoses, increased nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, cellular variation

34

Describe the clonality of neoplasms:

MONOCLONAL
All cells of a neoplasm originated from a single founding cell

35

Name the 2 types of genes involved in neoplasia:

1) Proto-oncogenes
2) Tumour suppressor genes

36

Define proto-oncogene, and state the number of mutations in a cell required to favour neoplastic growth:

Normal gene coding for proteins which help regulate cell growth and differentiation. Can become an oncogene if mutated or increasingly expressed.
Mutation in 1 allele is required to favour neoplastic growth, as it is an activating mutation.

37

Define tumour suppressor gene, and state the number of mutations in a cell required to favour neoplastic growth:

Normal gene which helps control cell growth.
Mutation in both alleles required to favour neoplastic growth, as it is an inactivating mutation.

38

What hormone do Carcinoid tumours often release?

Serotonin (5HT)

39

What hormones do Pheochromocytoma tumours release?

Catecholamines:
- Adrenaline
- Noradrenaline

Also releases Vanillylmandelic acis (end-metabollite of catecholamines)

40

What are the signs/symptoms associated with Pheochromocytoma? Explain why they occur:

- Tachycardia
- Sweating
- Anxiety
- Increased BP
Catecholamine-secreting tumour causes sympathetic NS overactivity.