Flashcards in MoD 8 (Neoplasia 1) Deck (40):
Abnormal growth of cells which persists after the initial stimulus is removed
Any clinically detectable lump or swelling
A malignant neoplasm that has spread from its original site to a new non-contiguous site
The loss of differentiation of cells and their orientation to each other, characteristic of malignant tumours
The assumption of various distinct forms by a single organism or within a species.
A carcinogenic process where cells are genetically altered by initiators, and undergo a second cell expansion which allows uncontrollable growth
The dense stroma seen in cancers that produce abundant connective tissue
What is a Leiomyoma?
Benign tumour derived from smooth muscle
ie. Uterine Leiomyoma
What is an Osteoma?
Benign tumour of bone
What is the name given to a benign tumour of cartilage?
What is the name given to a benign tumour of adipose cells?
Benign tumour composed of neuroglia
Ie Astocytoma, Oligodendrocytoma, Eppendymoma
What is the name given to a benign tumour of striated muscle cells?
Any growth/mass protruding from a mucous membrane, usually benign, often considered 'pre-cancerous' and may become malignant
What is a haemangioma?
Congenital vascular benign tumour
What is a naevus?
Benign localised overgrowth of melanocytes
Benign tumour-like nodule, resulting from faulty development of an organ
What is the name given to a malignant tumour derived from epithelia?
What is the name given to a malignant tumour derived from connective tissue?
Where are the 4 most common sites of metastasis?
Name the most common form of skin cancer (~80%), and the main causative factor it is associated with:
Basal cell carcinoma
Chronic UV exposure and radiation
Define Choriocarcinoma, and the tumour marker it usually releases:
Germ cell cancer containing trophoblast cells
Beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
What tumour marker does colorectal carcinoma often release?
CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen)
Name the most common primary bone cancer type in adults, and the most common bones it affects:
Pelvis, rib cage, proximal humerus/fibia/tibia
Define mesothelioma, and the main causative factor it is associated with:
Malignant neoplasm of mesothelium cells (from serous membranes)
What is the ABCDE approach for diagnosis of malignant melanoma?
Which germ layer are melanocytes derived from?
List some risk factors of malignant melanoma:
- Lots of moles
- Fair skin
- High UV exposure/radiation
- Previous cancer
Where does malignant melanoma usually metastasise to?
Define multiple myeloma, and give the tumour marker that it often releases:
Malignant neoplasm derived from plasma cells
B2M (Beta-2 Microglobulin)
What tumour markers do germ cell cancers often release?
1) AFP (alpha-fetoprotein)
2) Beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
Differentiate between a benign and malignant tumour, using macroscopic features:
Benign - grow in confined local area, with pushing outer margin
Malignant - irregular outer margin and shape, may show areas of ulceration/necrosis
Differentiate between a benign and malignant tumour, using microscopic features:
Benign - Cells are well differentiated, and resemble parent tissue
Malignant - Cells range from poorly to well differentiated, may show hyperchromasia, mitoses, increased nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, cellular variation
Describe the clonality of neoplasms:
All cells of a neoplasm originated from a single founding cell
Name the 2 types of genes involved in neoplasia:
2) Tumour suppressor genes
Define proto-oncogene, and state the number of mutations in a cell required to favour neoplastic growth:
Normal gene coding for proteins which help regulate cell growth and differentiation. Can become an oncogene if mutated or increasingly expressed.
Mutation in 1 allele is required to favour neoplastic growth, as it is an activating mutation.
Define tumour suppressor gene, and state the number of mutations in a cell required to favour neoplastic growth:
Normal gene which helps control cell growth.
Mutation in both alleles required to favour neoplastic growth, as it is an inactivating mutation.
What hormone do Carcinoid tumours often release?
What hormones do Pheochromocytoma tumours release?
Also releases Vanillylmandelic acis (end-metabollite of catecholamines)