MoD 9 (Neoplasia 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MoD 9 (Neoplasia 2) Deck (15):
1

Explain why cancer cells are inefficient at metastasising to distant tissues:

Cancer cells not designed to withstand high arterial pressure:
- Damaged by hitting vessel wall
- Shredded 'embolic trauma' as too large to pass through capillaries

2

Which 3 alterations are needed for invasion? How to cancer cells cause these changes?

1) Altered adhesion
- Reduce E-cadherin expression to allow movement
- Increase E-cadherin expression once in transport
2) Altered proteolysis
- To degrade basement membrane and stoma (mainly via matrix metalloproteinases)
3) Altered motility
- Change actin cytoskeleton to allow movement

3

What are the 3 routes of metastasis?

1) Lymph
2) Blood
3) Coelomic

4

Which 5 neoplasms commonly spread to bone?

1) Breast
2) Bronchus
3) Kidney
4) Thyroid
5) Prostate

5

Which type of malignant tumour typically spreads first to lymph then blood?

Carcinoma

6

Which type of malignant neoplasm typically spreads first to blood?

Sarcoma

7

Which hormone is commonly released by Thyroid adenoma's?

Thyroxine

8

Which hormones are commonly produced by Bronchial small cell carcinoma?

1) ACTH
2) ADH

9

Which hormone is sometimes released from bronchial squamous cell carcinoma?

PTH-like hormone

10

Which type of lung cancer is associated with finger clubbing?

Non-small cell

11

What is a sentinel lymph node?

First node to which a cancer is most likely to spread from a primary tumour

12

How is a sentinel lymph node biopsy performed?

- Inject radioactive dye into skin around the site of the original tumour
- Allows location of sentinel nodes, which can then be removed via incision

13

Name the 2 types of lung cancer strongly associated with smoking:

1) Bronchial small cell
2) Squamous cell

14

Name the 2 most aggressive forms of lung cancer:

1) Bronchial small cell
2) Large cell carcinoma

15

Where does Lung cancer typically metastasise to?

- Brain
- Bone
- Liver
- Adrenal glands