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Explain the four stages of lobar pneumonia

Stage 1) congestion- where a protein rich exudate leaves and enters the alveoli space, causing the lung to be heavy
Stage 2) red hepatization - when neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes all arrive at the site. There is also extravasation of red blood cells from the capillaries causing the lung to be very red
Stage 3) grey hepatization - when fibrin accumulates and WBC and RBC die
Stage 4) resolution - neutrophils die and also the exudate is drained by the lymph system


Explain Inherited angio- oedema

It is a c1 esterase inhibitor deficiency. C1 esterase inhibitor usually inhibits bradykinin production. However this deficiency results in increased vascular permeability leading to oedema. To treat this condition give c1 esterase inhibitor.


Explain Alpha one anti trypsin deficiency

Anti trypsin usually inhibits the trypsin enzyme which converts pro- elastase into elastase . With this deficiency there is an increase in elastase which causes destruction of lung tissue and can cause emphysema. This condition can also damage the liver as hepatocytes produce an abnormal version of this protein.


Explain Chronic granulomatous disease

Phagocytes cannot produce ROS so can therefore not kill the phagocytes as they cannot produce an oxygen burst. As a result, chronic infections result in the first year of life,


Explain TB

Tuberculosis is often caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis, and spreads from person to person via air droplets when coughing, or sneezing. It most commonly affects the lungs but can spread to other organs of the body. Symptoms of TB include fever, weight loss and coughing with the presence of blood. Histologically, TB can usually be identified by granulomatous formation with caseous necrosis and langhan giant cells in the centre. Tb can be tested for by doing the acid fast test.


Explain ulcerative colitis

It is an example of irritable bowel disease. Ulcerative colitis, affects the mucosa and submucosa. It also has a very high risk of causing colon cancer and can often be treated by a colectomy. It largely affects the rectum and colon so therefore often spares the small intestine. There is also a lot of crypt abscesses . Diahorrea and bleeding are also common signs


Explain Crohn's disease

It is an example of irritable bowel disease. Crohn's disease is a transmural disease which affects the whole thickness of the bowel. It also has a risk for colon cancer. Fistulae are also present which is when two epithelial lined organs attach together. It often presents with a cobblestone appearance. It can affect any part of the GI tract and also can have granulomas present as well


Explain Leprosy

It is an infectious cause of granulomas and is caused by the mycobacterium leprae. Symptoms include granulomas of the skin eyes and nerves. It may result in the lack of ability of feeling pain.


Explain sarcoidosis

Is an unknown cause of granulomas which are non caseating. They usually occur in the lymph nodes and lungs. In sarcoidosis the granulomas can resolve spontaneously.


Explain rheumatoid arthritis

Is an autoimmune condition which causes inflammation to the synovial membrane of joints. Three cells usually involved in this condition are macrophages, lymphocytes and also plasma cells. In RA, rheumatoid nodules can form in the skin. Treatment of RA includes inmmunosupressant's


Acute appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix, and can be most commonly causes by lymphoid hyperplasia which can therefore block the lumen of the appendix. It can present as abdominal pain and fever. Complications include liver abscess, peritonitis and perforation of the appendix


ascending cholangitis

Is infection of the bile duct due to gall stones. It can produce symptoms like jaundice, fever, low bp and nausea. Treatment is often intravenous fluids to restore the fluid lost from sickness and to increase bp


Explain bacterial meningitis

Infection of the meninges. The bacteria that causes this is usually neisseria meningitidis. It can be diagnosed by a lumbar puncture or a gram stain to etch the type of bacteria. The symptoms include, stiff neck, fever, nausea and headaches. Complications involve, cerebral access, increased inter cranial pressure leading to increased compression in the brain. Treatment involved is antibiotics


Explain the differences between lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia

Lobar pneumonia affects the whole lobe of the lungs whereas the bronchopneumonia affects the bronchioles, and also has a sudden onset. Bronchopneumonia can ultimately lead to lobar pneumonia.